氣泡酒與香檳 – 有什麼區別 ?

你有沒有被一個傲慢的侍酒師或葡萄酒酒商指責汽泡酒不能稱做香檳酒? 你不知道為什麼? 這是因為雖然汽泡酒和香檳都有泡沫,但這僅是汽泡葡萄酒共同之處。

以下是兩者之間的五大主要區別:

1. 他們來自不同的地方
汽泡酒來自意大利東北部的威尼托地區,香檳來自法國東北部的香檳地區。 隨著舊世界葡萄酒釀造的悠久歷史,這些地區為他們的風土 – 葡萄種植的氣候和土壤而感到非常自豪。
香檳被認為是起泡酒的發源地,其種植者認為香檳是 “地方酒”,無法在世界其他地方複製。多年來,香檳的名字一直用於營銷目的,香檳的管理機構已經起訴了Perrier,Yves Saint Laurent和Miller啤酒等品牌。
所以你看,所有的香檳都屬於汽泡酒,但並不是所有汽泡酒都是香檳酒。

2. 它們由不同的葡萄釀製而成
生產香檳酒和汽泡酒葡萄所使用的葡萄由本地區各自的組成機構制定,以確保該地區葡萄酒的質量和真實性。
香檳生產中允許使用三種主要葡萄:霞多麗,黑比諾和皮諾莫尼耶。 Prosecco主要生產意大利威尼托地區的汽泡酒葡萄或格萊拉葡萄。

3. 它們以不同的方式製作
香檳酒使用時間和勞動密集型工藝製作,稱為MéthodeTraditionelle,也稱為MéthodeChampenoise。 這種方法要求葡萄酒的二次發酵(它是如何得到它的氣泡的)發生在同一個瓶子裡,它會從中提供。
汽泡酒的二次發酵發生在不銹鋼槽中,這個過程稱為Charmat方法。 直到二次發酵完成後才將葡萄酒裝瓶,使其成為更具成本效益的方法,從而為消費者帶來更實惠的價格。

4. 他們有不同的風味概況
汽泡酒的特點通常是青蘋果,柑橘和白色花朵的香氣,通常是清淡而細膩的,而且不是非常複雜。一些汽泡酒甚至與甜味,或者稱為“干性”有關。
另一方面,香檳增加了複雜性,部分原因是在二次發酵過程中花費了與死酵母細胞接觸的額外時間。 這些酵母細胞除了可以根據所用葡萄的比例而變化,還可以包括,但不限於:柑橘、蘋果、桃子、獼猴桃、蜂蜜、白色的花朵、櫻桃和覆盆子的味道。

 

5. 它們代表不同的價格點
除了將葡萄酒與食物搭配之外,還應該將葡萄酒與場合配對。
Prosecco是一款經濟實惠的汽泡酒,是一款不錯的日常選擇。這也是含酒精飲料如含羞草,貝利尼或石榴 – 迷迭香的最佳選擇。
香檳酒的價格更高,通常每瓶40美元以上,這使得它更像是一種特殊場合的葡萄酒,其複雜性最好在享用時慢慢體驗。

 

Prosecco vs. Champagne: What’s the difference?

Have you ever been reprimanded by a snooty sommelier or wine snob for referring to prosecco as Champagne, and you weren’t sure why? It was because while prosecco and Champagne both have bubbles, that’s just about all these sparkling wines have in common.
Here are five major differences between the two:
1. They’re from different places: Prosecco hails from the Veneto region in northeast Italy, and Champagne comes from the Champagne region in northeast France. With the extensive history of winemaking in the Old World, these regions take great pride in their terroir – the climate and soil where their grapes are grown. Champagne is considered the birthplace of sparkling wine, and its growers consider Champagne a “wine of place” that cannot be reproduced anywhere else in the world. Over the years the Champagne name has been used indiscriminately for marketing purposes, and Champagne’s governing body has sued brands such as Perrier, Yves Saint Laurent and Miller beer over its use. So you see, all Champagne is sparkling wine, but not all sparkling wine is Champagne.

2. They are made from different grapes: Grapes used in the production of both Champagne and prosecco are set by their region’s respective governing bodies to ensure the quality and authenticity of the region’s wines. There are three main grapes allowed in the production of Champagne: chardonnay, pinot noir and pinot meunier. Prosecco is produced primarily from the prosecco or glera grape, which is native to the Veneto region of Italy.

3. They’re made in different ways: Champagne is made using a time and labor intensive process known as the Méthode Traditionelle, also called Méthode Champenoise. This method requires that the wine’s secondary fermentation (how it gets its bubbles) take place in the same bottle it will be served from. Prosecco’s secondary fermentation takes place in a stainless steel tank, a process known as the Charmat method. The wine is not bottled until the secondary fermentation is complete, making it a more cost-effective method that results in a more affordable price for the consumer.

4. They have different flavor profiles. Prosecco is generally characterized by notes of green apples, citrus and white flowers that are usually light and delicate and not exceedingly complex. Some prosecco even borders on sweet, or what’s known as off-dry. Champagne, on the other hand, has added complexity, due in part to additional time spent in contact with dead yeast cells during secondary fermentation. These yeast cells give it a toasted brioche, yeasty bread dough or biscuit taste, in addition to fruit and other flavors, which can vary depending on the proportion of grapes used and can include – but is not limited to – citrus, apple, peach, honey, white flowers, cherry and raspberry.

5. They represent different price points: In addition to pairing wine with food, you should also pair the wine with the occasion. Prosecco is an affordable sparkling wine that is an excellent everyday option. It’s also a great choice for sparkling wine-based drinks like mimosas, bellinis or pomegranate-rosemary royales (click here for recipe). Champagne’s higher price point – entry level is usually upward of $40 a bottle – makes it more of a special occasion wine whose complexity is best enjoyed when savored on its own.

關於葡萄酒的一些常見誤解

在全球,葡萄酒是最受歡迎的酒精飲料之一。然而在台灣,葡萄酒並沒有真正受到廣泛接受,或是吸引到年輕和受過良好教育的成年人,以及那些有消費能力的人能夠享用美酒。
台灣一般人仍然喜歡啤酒,紹興(大米)酒或烈酒,另外葡萄酒搭配中國菜也不常見。但是現在漸漸有一些改變,但依然有些對葡萄酒的錯誤認知存在。
以下是關於葡萄酒常見誤解的討論。

1. 所有葡萄酒必須陳年; 葡萄酒的價值隨著年齡增長
這不一定是真的。只有一些精選的葡萄酒隨著年齡的增長而改善,但大多數葡萄酒在購買時已經是適飲期。
另外,要使葡萄酒適宜陳釀,葡萄酒儲存的條件必須是理想的。葡萄酒老化有三個主要標準 – 葡萄酒的類型(是否是一種能夠實際上隨著時間的推移而改進的葡萄酒),葡萄酒保持老化的環境(恆溫,恆濕,穩定的環境),並清楚了解何時葡萄酒會實際發展到頂峰,然後開始劣化。

2. 紅葡萄酒必須在室溫下儲存和飲用
通常,我們聽說紅葡萄酒需要在室溫下品飲,這裡要注意的是,這個室溫指的是歐洲的室溫,即16-18°C。但是,在台灣夏季的室溫可能超過35°C。
因此除了冬季,在台灣將紅葡萄酒存放在16-18°C的受控環境中非常重要。
其他要考慮的因素包括濕度(用軟木塞密封的瓶子),暴露在陽光下(要避免),以及振動和顛簸,都會對葡萄酒的口感產生負面影響。一般來說,如果你只需要存儲少量的葡萄酒幾週,最好將它儲存在冰箱中而不是室溫下。對於葡萄酒愛好者來說,葡萄酒櫃可能是一個不錯的選擇。

3. 每種葡萄酒都需要特定的酒杯
雖然每種葡萄酒都有理想的酒杯類型(形狀),但最好搭配使用,但這並不意味著如果您沒有特定葡萄酒的特定杯子,您就無法享用葡萄酒。
只要你有一個稍微寬一些的碗型(不是長型)的杯子,這是完全可以接受的你只填滿酒杯的底部1/5,然後平穩地旋轉酒(不要急劇旋轉),讓葡萄酒的酒香溢出到玻璃杯口中。聞著葡萄酒香氣是品嚐葡萄酒的樂趣的一部分,並為品嚐葡萄酒的口感做準備。 拿著酒杯上的酒莖而非直接握住杯子,否則你會把手上的熱量轉移到酒上而改變它的口感。當然,某方面來說,這也是一種加熱一杯太冷的葡萄酒方法。

4. 甜葡萄酒適合葡萄酒新手
根據您的口味和口感,如果您與特定食物配對,您可以享用甜酒或干白酒。有許多葡萄酒鑑賞家喜歡更甜的葡萄酒。更甜的葡萄酒不是不成熟的感覺,也不僅僅是女性飲用。它們的糖含量較高因此很甜。紅葡萄酒和白葡萄酒可以甜或干。 有些人喜歡更甜的葡萄酒,而不是單寧更多的葡萄酒,因為這種甜味提供了一個很好的平衡,並可以像甜酒一樣順口。再一次強調葡萄酒是個人偏好 – 沒有絕對的!

5. 把香料添加到酒中
當人們談到葡萄酒中的水果味或煙熏味時,它可能會混淆葡萄酒新手。然而葡萄酒的口味取決於特定的葡萄,每種葡萄酒的釀造方式(以及混釀的方式)及葡萄酒的儲藏方式。
葡萄酒發展自己的口味,並且經常類似某些水果或花的氣味,這取決於其性質。如果酒存放在木桶中,葡萄酒的味道會受到他們陳年的木桶影響。因此,正常的葡萄酒完全天然根本沒有添加任何調味劑。

6. 法國葡萄酒是最好的葡萄酒
法國幾個世紀以來一直生產葡萄酒,並將葡萄酒出口到世界各地,直至今日。法國的條件非常適合葡萄園,因此法國有大片的葡萄酒生產土地。因此許多人認為葡萄酒的適合口味應該是法國葡萄酒口感這並不令人驚訝。
然而除法國外,現在還有許多其他國家生產多種優質葡萄酒。對於葡萄酒中的探索可以持續一輩子,讓您探索嘗試各個國家的葡萄酒。然後您可以發現您對葡萄酒口感的喜好,並了解您喜歡哪些葡萄酒、來自哪些國家和葡萄酒種植區。
每個國家都有生產優質葡萄酒,在這種情況下,所謂的 “最佳” 具有很高的主觀性,並不一定受價格影響。

7. 用軟木塞瓶的葡萄酒才是最佳品質的
葡萄酒瓶以三種方式密封 – 傳統瓶塞、金屬螺旋蓋或塑料螺旋塞。
雖然許多人認為傳統的軟木塞葡萄酒是最好的,但是釀酒師常常使用螺旋蓋,因為保存軟木塞裝瓶的酒往往會帶來不方便。葡萄酒瓶必須傾斜或軟木塞可能會改變葡萄酒性質(極端是軟木污染)。
一般來說無論是螺旋蓋還是軟木塞頂部,都不應該改變酒裡的香氣和品質。現在有兩種思想主流:許多現代釀酒師更喜歡螺旋蓋,因為它們更加穩定(不會變質),並且更容易打開帶有螺旋頂部的瓶子(並且不是每個人都可能始終帶有軟木塞開瓶器);然而回歸傳統的人們認為帶有軟木塞的葡萄酒瓶提供了更高品質的體驗。也因此在這個問題上至今仍然不斷爭議。

Some Common Misperception about Wine

Globally, wine is among the most popular alcoholic beverages. However, wine has not really gained wide acceptance in Taiwan, is appealing to younger and more educated adults, and those with the spending power to be able to enjoy fine wine. The population at-large in Taiwan still prefers beer, shao hsing (rice) wine or hard spirits, to grape wine. Also, it not that common to pair grape wines with Chinese cuisine. However, there is some gradual changes occurring. The following is a discussion on some common misperceptions about wine.

1. All Wines must be Aged; Wines Improve with Age

This is not necessarily true. Only some select wines improve with age, but most wines are ready to drink, when purchased. In addition, for wines to age properly, the conditions, under which wine is stored, must be ideal. There are 3 major criteria to the ageing of wines – the type of wine it is (whether it is a wine that is capable of actually improving over time), the environment that the wine is kept under for ageing (constant temperature, humidity, stability of movement), and a clear understanding of when a wine will actually mature to its peak, and then begin to deteriorate.

2. Red Wine must be Stored and Consumed at Room Temperature

Often, we hear that red wine needs to be drunk at room temperature, the caveat here is that this room temperature refers to room temperature in Europe, which is 16-18°C. However, in Taiwan, room temperature can exceed 35°C in the summer months. Therefore, except for winter, in Taiwan, it is important to store your red wines in a controlled environment at about 16-18°C.
Other factors to consider include humidity (for bottles sealed with a cork), exposure to sunlight (to be avoided), and vibrations and jolting, can negatively affect the taste of wines. Generally, if you need to store wine for only a few weeks, it is better to store it in the refrigerator than at room temperature. For wine aficionados, a wine refrigerator may be a good investment.

3. Each Wine requires a Specific Wine Glass

While it is true that each type of wine has an ideal wine glass type (shape) it is best paired with, this does not mean that you cannot enjoy a wine, if you do not have the specific glasses for a particular wine. As long as you have a stem glass with a slightly wider bowl (not a flute), this is entirely acceptable. You only fill the bottom 1/5 of the wine glass, then steadily swirl the wine (never swirl sharply), allowing the bouquet of the wine to escape into the mouth of the glass. Smelling the wine its part of the enjoyment of tasting the wines, and prepares the palate for the taste of the wine. Hold the wine glass by the stem, otherwise you will transfer the heat from your hands to the wine, thus altering its taste. However, this is a way to warm a glass of wine that is too cold from being refrigerated.

4. Sweet Wines are for Wine Novices

Depending on your palate and your taste, and if you are pairing with specific foods, you can enjoy of either sweet or dry wine. There are many wine connoisseurs who prefer sweeter wines. Sweeter wines are not immature tastes nor only for women. They just have a higher sugar content and hence, are sweet. Red and white wines can be sweet or dry. Some prefer sweeter wines, as opposed to wines with more tannin, as the sugar provides a nice balance and goes well as a dessert wine. Again, “Beauty is in the Eye of the Beholder”, and wine is a personal preference – there are no absolutes!

5. Flavors are Added to Wine

It might confuse wine novices, when people speak of fruity or smoky flavors in wine. However, the taste of wine depends on the particular grapes, the way each wine is processed (and in some cases, blended), and how the wine is stored. Wines develop a taste of their own and often resemble the smells of certain fruits or flowers, depending on the properties. If wine is stored in wooden barrels, wine taste will be influenced by the barrels in which they are aged. Wines are completely natural and have no flavoring added to them at all.

6. French Wine is the Best Wine

France has been producing wines for centuries, and exporting their wines all over the world, up to the present day. French conditions are ideal for vineyards and thus, there are a large expanse of land dedicated to the production of wine in France. Therefore, it is not a surprise that many people feel that the “proper” taste of wine should be the way that French wines tastes. However, there now are many other countries, besides France, that produce many varieties of outstanding wine. The adventure in wine, which can last a lifetime, is to become adventurous, and try wines “outside of your comfort zone”. Then you can develop you wine palate, and understand what wines you prefer, from what countries and wines growing areas. Quality wines are being produced in every country. In this case, “Best” is highly subjective, and is not necessarily driven by price.

7. The Best Quality Wines come in Corked Bottles

Wine bottles are sealed in three ways – the traditional bottle cork, metal screw top, or plastic screw top. While many believe that the traditional corked wines are the best, screw tops are often used by winemakers, since keeping a bottled corked often gets a little inconvenient. The wine bottle has to be tilted or the cork may change in character (the extreme being cork taint). Generally, whether screw cap or cork top, there should be no change in the flavor and the quality of the wine inside. There are two schools of thought. Many modern winemakers prefer screw caps, as they are more stable (no deterioration), and it is easier to open a bottle with a screw top (and not everyone may have a cork screw with them all the time). However, falling back on tradition, the perception is that wine bottles with a cork seal, provides a higher quality experience. Again, the verdict is still out on this issue.

甚麼是葡萄酒中的丹寧酸?

在葡萄酒中,丹寧酸是使葡萄酒味道變乾(Dry)的質地元素。
單寧是植物,種子,樹皮,木材,葉子和果皮中發現的天然存在的多酚。 大約50%的植物葉片比重是單寧。 作為葡萄酒的一個特點單寧增加了苦味和澀味以及復雜性。 葡萄酒單寧最常見於紅葡萄酒,白葡萄酒的單寧從橡木桶陳釀而來。

單寧味道是什麼?
單寧味道乾燥和澀味,你可以感覺到它特別是在你的舌頭和你的嘴前部。 不加糖的紅茶溶解在水中幾乎是純鞣酸的一個很好的例子。
高丹寧食品
•茶葉
•核桃,杏仁和其他帶皮的堅果
•黑巧克力
•肉桂,丁香和其他香料
•石榴,葡萄和阿塞伊漿果
•木瓜
•紅豆

酒丹寧來自哪裡?
葡萄酒中的丹寧酸來自兩個可能的地方:葡萄酒和木頭。

什麼是葡萄單寧?
葡萄單寧來自酒葡萄的皮,種子和莖。 因此,紅葡萄酒的單寧往往比白葡萄酒高,因為葡萄皮與果汁的延長接觸使單寧酸有時間溶解在葡萄酒中。
某些葡萄酒的單寧比其他葡萄酒高。 意大利Barolo使用的Nebbiolo葡萄是高單寧葡萄品種。

什麼是木單寧?
木單寧通過接觸溶入酒中。 當葡萄酒存放在木桶中時,這種情況最為常見。 橡木桶是最受歡迎的選擇,因為它們添加到酒中的香味如香草醛。
單寧粉,橡木片和橡木板越來越受歡迎,因為它們更實惠。 很難說哪個更好,因為橡木桶可以用於葡萄酒釀造長達70年。

哪些葡萄酒單寧含量偏高或偏低?
我們挑選了幾個例子來幫助說明葡萄酒單寧,記住葡萄酒的釀造方式會深遠影響葡萄酒中單寧的含量。
一般來說,優質葡萄酒是有意創造出 “圓潤” 的單寧。

  1. 高丹寧葡萄酒:
    •內比奧羅
    •赤霞珠
    •普蘭尼洛
    •蒙特普齊亞諾
    •小維鐸
    •嬌小的西拉
  2. 低單寧葡萄酒:
    •巴貝拉
    •粉黛
    •黑比諾
    •普里米蒂沃
    •歌海娜
    •梅洛

葡萄酒單寧是好還是壞?
單寧+健康=好
實際上有一項關於葡萄酒和茶單寧和體內氧化作用的研究,在測試中,葡萄酒單寧抗氧化,而茶單寧沒有。換句話說,這對你來說可能超好。 你可以在這裡閱讀摘要
關於偏頭痛? 研究團隊仍然沒有研究出單寧和偏頭痛之間的關係。為了去除飲食中的單寧,你需要停止食用巧克力,堅果,蘋果汁,茶,石榴,當然還有葡萄酒。
葡萄酒的單寧是葡萄酒儲藏時間及方式值得注意的重要組成部分。
香氣化合物:在葡萄酒的微小細節(酚類,酯類,高級醇類,酸類等)中,您會發現葡萄酒口感和香氣的複雜性。每種葡萄品種都有不同程度的香氣化合物。這就是為什麼一些葡萄酒聞起來像漿果和其他聞起來像花一樣。
另一個影響葡萄酒香味的因素是老化。幾乎所有的紅葡萄酒都在橡木桶中陳釀,這不僅有助於橡木桶的香味化合物(如香草),而且還可以作為將葡萄酒暴露於氧氣的管道。氧化和老化產生一系列獨特的葡萄酒風味,包括堅果和乾果/花香。

What are Tannins in Wine?
In wine, tannin is a textural element that makes wine taste dry.
Tannin is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in plants, seeds, bark, wood, leaves, and fruit skins. About 50% of the dry weight of plant leaves are tannins. As a characteristic of wine, tannin adds both bitterness and astringency, as well as complexity. Wine tannins are most commonly found in red wine, although white wines have tannin from being aged in wooden barrels.

What Does Tannin Taste Like?
Tannin tastes dry and astringent and you can feel it specifically on the middle of your tongue and the front part of your mouth. Unsweetened black tea is a great example of nearly pure tannin dissolved in water.
High-Tannin Foods
• Tea Leaves
• Walnuts, Almonds, and Other Nuts with Skins
• Dark Chocolate
• Cinnamon, Clove and Other Spices
• Pomegranates, Grapes, and Açaí Berries
• Quince
• Red Beans

Where do Wine Tannins Come From?
Tannins in wine come from two possible places: wine grapes and wood.

Anatomy of a Wine Grape
What are Grape Tannins?
Grape tannin comes from the skins, seeds, and stems of a wine grape. For this reason, red wines tend to have higher tannins than white wines because the extended contact of the grapes skins with the juice give the tannins time to dissolve in the alcohol and water in the wine.

Some types of wine have higher tannins than others. The Nebbiolo grape used in Italian Barolo, is a high grape tannin wine.
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What are Wood Tannins?
Wood tannins dissolve into wine through contact. Most commonly this happens when wine is stored in wooden barrels. Oak barrels are the most popular choice because of the flavors they add to wine such as vanillin.

Tannin powders, oak chips and oak staves are growing in popularity because they are more affordable. It is hard to say which is better, since an oak barrel can be used in winemaking for up to 70 years.
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Which Wines are High vs Low in Tannin?
We picked out a few examples to help illustrate wine tannins. It’s helpful to remember that winemaking style greatly affects how much tannin is in a wine. In general, high production wines are deliberately created to have “rounder” feeling tannins.
High Tannin Wines
• Nebbiolo
• Cabernet Sauvignon
• Tempranillo
• Montepulciano
• Petit Verdot
• Petite Sirah
Low Tannin Wines
• Barbera
• Zinfandel
• Pinot Noir
• Primitivo
• Grenache
• Merlot

Are Wine Tannins Good or Bad?
Tannins + Health = Good There is actually a study on the effects of wine and tea tannin and oxidation in the body. In the tests, wine tannin resists oxidation whereas tea tannin did not. In other words, it may be super good for you. You can read the synopsis here.

What About Migraines?

The jury is still out on the connection between tannin and migraines. In order to remove tannins from your diet, you’ll need to stop consuming chocolate, nuts, apple juice, tea, pomegranate and, of course, wine.