開瓶後的葡萄酒可以飲用多久

這個問題沒有一個確定的答案, 即使在打開一天之後,葡萄酒總會有一些降解,儘管起初它不會明顯被檢測到, 大多數葡萄酒在打開幾天后都可以很好地飲用,只要瓶頸以某種方式塞住,以進一步阻止空氣進入。

具有諷刺意味的是,一瓶已經發酵多年的葡萄酒在開瓶後幾天內都會變壞,但即便是葡萄酒也有局限性,葡萄酒變質的原因在於,在發酵過程中葡萄酒的味道更好 ,氧化,由於葡萄酒暴露在氧氣中,這在打開後是不可避免的,隨著時間的推移它開始變質。

如果你想讓你的葡萄酒持續更長時間,有許多配件可以幫助你盡可能長時間保持新鮮,專業的瓶塞可以起到不同程度的效果,但是一旦瓶子被打開,它們都不能完全阻止葡萄酒的降解,保持葡萄酒冷藏也有幫助,因為低溫會減緩化學變化,保持葡萄酒不受光照也是個好主意。

不同類型葡萄酒的保質期

以下是葡萄酒開封後的長壽指南, 這是假設瓶子被正確“塞住”並存放在冰箱中。

Red Wines

如果你是那種喜歡慢慢品嚐葡萄酒的人,那麼紅葡萄酒絕對適合你,只要密封和冷藏,大多數紅色瓶子在打開後最多可以飲用5天。

打開瓶子後,構成紅酒結構和身體的酸和單寧將開始分解,有時這不是一件壞事,許多更為澀的紅葡萄酒,例如年輕,濃郁的紅葡萄酒,在它們被打開後的第二天可能會更加美味,你會注意到更嚴厲的音符會減少,而較軟的結構會讓紅葡萄酒更加微妙。

然而像勃艮第和其他黑比諾或桑嬌維塞葡萄酒一樣,較為濃郁的紅葡萄酒,其結構將比大而大膽的赤霞珠和西拉葡萄酒更快地失去其結構,因此這些較淺的紅葡萄酒應該在2-3天內飲用,因為它們會更快地變平。

 

Rosé & Lighter White Wines

當我們想要一些清淡,新鮮和夏季的東西時,我們可以買到我們最喜歡的白葡萄酒和桃紅葡萄酒,這些葡萄酒的重點是提供有彈性和酸性的東西,充滿生機,帶有尖銳的水果和礦物質元素。

因此冷凍較淡的白葡萄酒,和大多數桃紅葡萄酒將是最令人滿意的新鮮開瓶,然而這並不意味著一旦你有足夠的東西就需要拋棄任何多餘的東西。

憑藉精心製作的高品質葡萄酒瓶,即使是輕甜的玫瑰紅葡萄酒和白葡萄酒,在5-7天的冰箱中也絕對精美,這意味著它們可以在長周末享用。

在前3天左右,他們的性格將開始改變,你會發現舌頭上的初始“新鮮感”可能會有所減少,但這可能不是一件壞事, 這些葡萄酒肯定仍然可以飲用。

 

Full-Bodied White Wines

濃郁,濃郁的白葡萄酒比較輕的“堂兄弟”靈活性差。

霞多麗、維歐尼、特雷比亞諾、白里奧哈…..  以其豐富和豐滿而著稱和喜愛 在老化過程中,在被釋放之前已經經歷了相當多的氧氣。

因此這些白葡萄酒將比開放後更年輕,更新鮮的例子更快地消亡。

這些種類的葡萄酒最好在開封後3天內完成,因為它們在較長時間後會變得非常難以飲用。

Sparkling Wine & Champagne

我們都經歷過忘記一瓶開口的蘇打水,然後回到它身上,卻發現了一種平坦,令人不愉快的脫碳液體。

同樣的事情很容易發生在起泡酒上,很快就會失去頭暈, 36小時後這些起泡酒不應該被吸收 – 這些葡萄酒從它們的細小氣泡中獲得它們的特徵,喝“死”的香檳永遠不會有多麼有趣也不令人滿意。

Prosecco和Asti也應在開業後2天內食用。

 

Fortified Wines

Shelf Life = 4 to 5 weeks

像Port和雪利酒這樣的強化葡萄酒與以前的葡萄酒不同,因為它們具有更高的酒精含量,被葡萄酒“強化”,並且它們的含糖量也更高。

這兩個因素都意味著開瓶港的保質期將比任何餐桌或起泡酒長得多,但是,這個時期並不是無限期的。

實際上4-5周是您可以預期保留一瓶強化葡萄酒的最長時間,一旦它開始降解並且失去所有那些深層,複雜,風味和特徵之後它就被打開了。

如果你想讓它們持久,你可以將它們放在涼爽,黑暗的地方,就像其他任何好酒一樣。

所以你有它 – 快速指導這些瓶裝各種葡萄酒在打開後會持續多久,請記住這些提示:給自己一個好的,可靠的瓶塞,並使用你的冰箱!然後你再也不會感到難過,因為你看著自己喜歡的葡萄酒,倒在排水溝裡。

 

How Long Does a Bottle of Wine Remain Drinkable After Opening?

There isn’t one definitive answer to this question. There will always be some degradation of the wine, even after one day of being opened – although it won’t be obviously detectable at first. Most wines are absolutely fine to drink after a couple of days of being opened, so long as the bottle neck is stoppered in some way which stops further air coming in.

It’s ironic to think that a bottle of wine that has been fermenting for a number of years can go bad within days of opening, but even wine has limitations. The reason wine goes bad is from the same thing that makes wine taste better during the fermentation process – oxidation. As wine is exposed to oxygen, which is unavoidable after opening, it begins to spoil over time.

If you want to make your wines last longer, there are many accessories that can help you keep it fresh for as long as possible. Professional bottle stoppers will work with varying degrees of effectiveness, but none of them will completely halt the degradation of the wine once the bottle has been opened. Keeping your wine refrigerated helps too, as low temperatures will slow chemical changes, and keeping your wine out of light is also a good idea.

The Shelf Life of Different Types of Wine

Here are some guidelines for the longevity of wine after it has been opened. This assumes that the bottles are properly “stoppered” and stored in a refrigerator. 

Red Wines

  • Shelf Life = 3 to 5 days

If you are the kind of person who likes to savor their wines slowly, then red wines are definitely the ones for you. The majority of bottles of red will be absolutely fine to drink up to 5 days after they’re opened, so long as they are sealed and refrigerated.

After a bottle is opened, the acids and tannins that make up the structure and body of red wine will start to break down. Sometimes this isn’t a bad thing. Many of the more astringent bottles of red wine, for example young, full-bodied reds, will probably be a lot more palatable the day after they’ve been uncorked. You’ll notice the harsher notes will have been diminished, and the softer structure will allow more subtleties of the red wine to come forward.

Lighter bodied reds, however, such as Burgundy and other Pinot Noir or Sangiovese-based wines, are going to lose their structure far more quickly than the big, bold Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines. Therefore, these lighter red wines should be drunk within 2-3 days, because they will go flat more rapidly.

  

Rosé & Lighter White Wines

  • Shelf Life = 5 to 7 days

When we want something light, zesty, fresh and summer-like, we reach for our favorite white and rosé wines. The whole point of these wines is to offer something springy and acidic, full of life, with sharp fruit and mineral notes.

As such, chilled, lighter white wines and most rosé wines are going to be most satisfying poured from a freshly-opened bottle. This doesn’t mean, however, that any excess needs to be thrown away once you’ve had enough.

With a well-made, high-quality wine stopper, even light rosé wines and white wines will be absolutely fine in the fridge from 5-7 days, meaning that they can be enjoyed over a long weekend.

After the first 3 days or so, their character will begin to change. You’ll find that the initial “freshness” on the tongue may be lessened somewhat, but this again might not be a bad thing. These wines will certainly will still be drinkable. 

Full-Bodied White Wines

  • Shelf Life = 2 to 3 days

 

Full bodied, stronger white wines are less flexible than their lighter “cousins”.

Chardonnay, Viognier, Trebbiano, White Rioja and others — celebrated and loved for their richness and fullness — already undergo a fair amount of oxygen during the aging process, before being released.

Because of this, these white wines will perish rather more quickly than younger, fresher examples after opening.

These sorts of wines are best finished within 3 days of opening, as they tend to become really rather unpleasant to drink after a longer period.

 

 

 

 

Sparkling Wine & Champagne

  • Shelf Life = 36 hours

We’ve all experienced forgetting an open can of soda, and returning to it, only to find a flat, unpleasant, de-carbonated liquid in its place.

The same thing can easily happen to sparkling wine, which lose fizziness quite quickly. After 36 hours, these sparkling wines shouldn’t be imbibed – these wines get their character from their fine bubbles. To drink a “dead” Champagne is never going to be much fun nor satisfying.

Prosecco and Asti also should be consumed within 2 days of opening, as well.

 

 

 

 

 

Fortified Wines

  • Shelf Life = 4 to 5 weeks

Fortified wines, like Port and Sherry, are the different than the previous wines, because they have a higher alcohol content, being ‘fortified’ with grape spirits, and they have a higher sugar content, too.

Both of these factors mean the shelf life of an opened bottle of Port will be much longer than any table or sparkling wine. However, this period is not indefinite.

Realistically, 4 – 5 weeks is the maximum amount of time you can expect to keep a bottle of fortified wine, once it has been opened before it begins to degrade and lose all those deep, complex, flavors and features.

Keep them in a cool, dark place, as you would any other good wine, if you want to make them last.

 

So, there you have it – a quick guide to how long those bottles of various wines are going to last after they’ve been opened. Please keep these tips in mind: Get yourself a good, trusty bottle stopper, and use your refrigerator! Then you’ll never have to feel sad again, as you watch your favorite wine, being poured down the drain.

 

Santa Barbara County美國優良AVA葡萄產區

聖巴巴拉縣(Santa Barbara County) – 葡萄酒產區 “加利福尼亞州最美麗,最令人興奮的葡萄種植區之一,位於洛杉磯看似無窮無盡的城市蔓延的北面90分鐘,聖巴巴拉正在製作一些美國最令人興奮的葡萄酒….從海洋涼爽的山谷到鮮明的山地葡萄園,從充滿活力的西拉到天鵝絨般的黑比諾,再到極佳的赤霞珠,從鄉村牧場莊主到隱居的名人 – 如果任何葡萄酒產區都可以擁有,那就是聖巴巴拉 “ 安東尼迪亞斯藍Santa Barbara. Anthony Dias Blue

加利福尼亞州的主要葡萄酒產區如下圖所示(除了北加州和洛杉磯/沙漠地區以南), 本文重點介紹位於中南部海岸地區的聖巴巴拉縣,Santa Inez Valley和Standing Sun Winery所在地,酒文集(daVinci Wine)是第一個從Santa Inez Valley到台灣的葡萄酒進口商,Santa Inez葡萄酒很難獲得,因為產量很低,大多數Santa Inez葡萄酒都是全數訂購的。

South Central Coast

 

中南海岸 聖巴巴拉葡萄酒之鄉

山谷獨特的橫向性質提供了微氣候和地形的優勢,成為世界上最多樣化的葡萄種植區之一,太平洋海岸線的山谷,實際上是東西向而不是南北向,沿海的Santa Ynez山脈和更為內部的San Rafael山脈也是橫向延伸的,由於這種地質奇特,海風吹向東方,由環繞該地區的丘陵和山脈引導, 向東行進山麓,白天氣溫溫暖,夜間氣溫涼爽,而向西朝向海洋的葡萄園氣候溫和宜人, 再加上從古老的海灘和矽藻土到石灰岩的土壤,有一個近乎完美的地方可供各種葡萄酒品種使用。

目前在聖巴巴拉縣內有六個聯邦政府批准的美國葡萄種植區(AVA):Santa Maria Valley和Santa Ynez Valley,然後分為四個子AVA(西向東):麗塔山(Sta),巴拉德峽谷、洛杉磯奧利沃斯區和聖巴巴拉快樂峽谷, 隨著葡萄種植者越來越多,他們對種植特定葡萄品種的最佳地點的了解,洛斯阿拉莫斯山谷和聖瑪麗亞長廊也顯示出明顯的特徵,有朝一日可能會導致AVA地位。

Santa Ynez Valley (official AVA of Santa Barbara County) (聖巴巴拉縣官方AVA)

 

Vineyards in Santa Ynez Valley Santa Ynez Valley

是加州聖巴巴拉縣最大的葡萄園集中的AVA, 它在1983年被認為是官方AVA,該地區的多樣化氣候意味著這裡生產的葡萄酒種類繁多,最著名的是黑皮諾,霞多麗,西拉和歌海娜.

AVA沿著聖伊內斯河(Santa Ynez River)沿著東西向的山谷延伸,從Sta延伸出來, Rita Hills AVA和西部的Purisima Hills位於東部的Cachuma湖, 該地區位於聖拉斐爾山脈的東北部,而聖伊內茲山脈則位於AVA的南部, 山谷在其西部極端處變窄,朝向太平洋海岸線,並且通過這個狹窄的間隙,海洋影響流入葡萄園。

山谷西端的葡萄園,適合氣候較涼爽的品種黑比諾(Pinot Noir)、霞多麗(Chardonnay)和一些雷司令(Riesling),在這裡海洋的霧和風有助於降低夜晚溫度並延長生長季節,從而產生具有良好酸度的均衡葡萄酒。

來自海洋的冷卻影響減少了向東移動通過山谷,因此東端有更多的葡萄品種種植,包括赤霞珠 (Cabernet Sauvignon)梅洛( Merlot),白蘇維濃( Sauvignon Blanc and)和西拉(Syrah), 總體而言Santa Ynez Valley的溫度比聖巴巴拉縣的其他地區溫暖,但與中央山谷和Sierra Foothills的內陸地區相比仍然相對涼爽。 這裡的土壤比國家其他地方的海洋要多得多,是古代海床的遺跡; 事實上,這些石灰岩土壤與黑皮諾(Pinot Noir)和霞多麗(Chardonnay) – 勃艮第(Burgundy)產區的環境極其相似, 土壤範圍從山谷底部的沙質土壤到山谷陡峭山坡腳下較高海拔處的粉質,粘土和頁岩壤土, 這些自由排水的淺土壤非常適合葡萄栽培,因為它們會在葡萄藤中產生壓力,導致低活力和產量,以及具有濃縮風味的漿果。

因此從西部的黑皮諾(Pinot Noir)到東部的赤霞珠(Cabernet),梅洛(Merlot)和歌海娜(Grenache),幾種葡萄品種都很好, 幾種羅納(Rh?ne)和意大利葡萄品種也在這個多功能的聖巴巴拉縣AVA中獲得好評, 從精品酒莊到數千箱經營,每位葡萄酒商都致力於釀造葡萄酒,真正體現了Santa Inez Valley當地葡萄的高品質和廣泛多樣性。

Santa Maria Valley(聖巴巴拉縣官方AVA)

經常有霧和風吹過的聖瑪利亞山谷是聖巴巴拉縣最北部的產區, 該地區首個獲得官方批准的美國葡萄栽培區(AVA)擁有極其複雜的土壤條件和多樣化的小氣候, 霞多麗和黑比諾是兩種特別受益於海洋影響的品種,也是這種AVA的旗艦葡萄酒。  聖瑪利亞山谷葡萄的質量得到廣泛認可,這種水果不僅僅用於產區葡萄酒釀造過程中, Santa Maria Valley葡萄也被聖巴巴拉縣的葡萄酒廠和縣外的許多葡萄酒廠使用, 聖瑪麗亞山谷的產區以聖拉斐爾山脈和東部的Los Padres國家森林為界,西部則是所羅門山和聖瑪麗亞市。

Sta. Rita Hills (official AVA of Santa Barbara County) 麗塔山(聖巴巴拉縣官方AVA)

麗塔山實際上位於Santa Ynez Valley產區,儘管其獨特的土壤和氣候將那裡種植的葡萄與溫暖的葡萄園中的葡萄區分開來, Sta的典型氣候, 麗塔山從海洋層雲和霧開始,到上午10點開始的初陽, 歷經兩三個小時的平靜陽光,直到岸上的微風輕拂再次降溫, 這種海洋氣候,再加上沉積的土壤和石灰岩,是此種植產區霞多麗和黑比諾的理想之地,麗塔山(Sta)的產區包括10平方英里範圍內約1700英畝的種植面積, 該地區位於Buellton鎮和Lompoc鎮之間,北面是La Purisima Hills山,南面是Santa Rosa Hills山,與Santa Ynez河相交。

Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara聖巴巴拉快樂峽谷(聖巴巴拉縣官方AVA)

Santa Barbara快樂峽谷位於Santa Ynez Valley AVA的遠東邊緣,深入Cachuma湖西北部的San Rafael山脈。 其內陸位置意味著明顯更溫暖的氣候,確保後期成熟品種的完全成熟。 該地區的起伏地形,高坡和各種土壤最適合種植波爾多葡萄品種,如品麗珠,赤霞珠,梅洛,小維鐸和長相,釀造濃郁濃郁的葡萄酒。 西拉和其他羅納品種也在這裡蓬勃發展。 Ballard Canyon巴拉德峽谷 ((聖巴巴拉縣官方AVA)) 巴拉德峽谷位於Santa Ynez Valley AVA的中心地帶,獨特的土壤和峽谷的氣候為西拉,歌海娜,赤霞珠,赤霞珠和品麗珠等紅葡萄生產出獨特的葡萄酒和白葡萄等創造了良好的環境, Sauvignon Blanc,Viognier和Roussanne。

Los Olivos District(聖巴巴拉縣官方AVA)

Los Olivos District AVA是一個廣闊的沖積平台,位於Solvang上方的Purisima Hills和Happy Canyon地區的西側之間,是一個獨特的地理和地質特徵,以其相對均勻的地形,地質和土壤剖面而著稱。 邊界包括Ballard,Santa Ynez,Los Olivos和Solvang等鄉鎮。

其他 – 洛斯阿拉莫斯山谷

Los Alamos Valley山谷位於Santa Maria Valley山谷和Santa Ynez Valley山谷之間, 在溫暖的日子和非常寒冷的夜晚,這個地區的水果實現了令人難以置信的集中和平衡, 它的輕微排水良好的土壤和各種微氣候允許多樣化的品種, 因為洛斯阿拉莫斯山穀不是官方產區,所以你不會在葡萄酒標籤上看到它 – 而是使用“聖巴巴拉縣”, 但是你不應該對標籤上指定的Los Alamos Valley葡萄園名稱感到驚訝,洛斯阿拉莫斯(Los Alamos),意為西班牙語中的“The Cottonwoods”,是一個位於Santa Maria Valley和Santa Ynez Valley產區之間101高速公路旁的小鎮, 洛斯阿拉莫斯(Los Alamos)周邊地區氣候溫和 – 比南部的Santa Ynez山谷溫度低十度,東北部的聖瑪麗亞山谷(Santa Maria Valley)溫度比溫度高十度,洛斯阿拉莫斯山谷位於所羅門山北部,南部是La Purisima Hills。

 

Santa Barbara County – Wine Region

“One of California’s most beautiful and exciting viticultural regions lies just 90 minutes north of the seemingly endless urban sprawl of Los Angeles. Santa Barbara is making some of the most thrilling wines in America. … From ocean-cooled valleys to stark mountain vineyards; from racy syrah to velvety pinot noir to the prospect of great cabernet; from rustic ranchers to reclusive celebrities – if any wine region can have it all, it’s Santa Barbara.” Anthony Dias Blue

 

The major wine growing areas in California are shown below (except for the extreme Northern California and the Los Angeles/ Desert area moving south). This article focuses on Santa Barbara County located in the South Central Coast Region, where the Santa Inez Valley and Standing Sun Winery are located.  da Vinci Wine is the first importer to bring-in wines from the Santa Inez Valley to Taiwan; Santa Inez wines are difficult to obtain since production quantities are low and most Santa Inez wines are fully subscribed.

 

South Central Coast

 

 

The unique, transverse nature of the valleys of Santa Barbara Wine Country provides a patchwork quilt of micro-climates and terrains, resulting in one of the most diverse grape growing regions in the world. The valleys in the Pacific coastline actually run east-west rather than north-south, and both the coastal Santa Ynez Mountain range and the more interior San Rafael range run transverse as well.

Because of this geologic oddity, the ocean breezes sweep eastward, channeled by the hills and mountains that ring the region. Heading east into the foothills, the temperatures are warm during the day and very cool during the night, whereas the vineyards that lie westward toward the ocean enjoy a mild and moderate climate. Coupled with soils that run the gamut from ancient beach and diatomaceous earth to limestone, there is a near-perfect place for a wide variety of wine grape varieties.

There are currently six (6) federally-sanctioned American Viticultural Areas (AVAs) within Santa Barbara County: Santa Maria Valley and the Santa Ynez Valley which then breaks down into four sub-AVAs (West to East): Sta. Rita Hills, Ballard Canyon, Los Olivos District, and Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara. As grape growers continue to advance their understanding of the best places to plant particular wine grape varieties, the Los Alamos Valley and the Santa Maria Bench are also showing distinct characteristics that may one day lead to AVA status.

 

Santa Ynez Valley (official AVA of Santa Barbara County)

Vineyards in Santa Ynez Valley

Santa Ynez Valley is the largest AVA with the highest concentration of vineyards in California’s Santa Barbara County. It was recognized as an official AVA in 1983 and the diverse climate of the area means that a wide range of wines are produced here, most notably from Pinot NoirChardonnay, Syrah and Grenache.

The AVA fills a wide, east-west-oriented valley along the course of the Santa Ynez River, stretching from the Sta. Rita Hills AVA and the Purisima Hills in the west to Lake Cachuma in the east. The area is bordered in the northeast by the San Rafael Mountains, while the Santa Ynez Mountains lock in the southern part of the AVA. The valley narrows at its western extreme where it edges towards the Pacific Ocean coastline, and it is through this narrow gap that ocean influences flow into the vineyards.

Vineyards in the western end of the valley are suited to the cooler-climate varieties of Pinot Noir, Chardonnay and, occasionally, Riesling. Here, ocean fog and winds help to reduce overnight temperatures and extend the growing season, leading to balanced wines with a good level of acidity.

The cooling influences from the ocean reduce moving eastwards through the valley, therefore the eastern end has more plantings of grape varieties including Cabernet SauvignonMerlotSauvignon Blanc and Syrah. Overall, Santa Ynez Valley has warmer temperatures than in the rest of Santa Barbara County, but is still relatively cool compared to the inland regions of the Central Valley and the Sierra Foothills.

Soils here are considerably more marine than in other parts of the state, being the remains of an ancient sea bed; in fact, these limestone soils are more closely associated with the spiritual home of Pinot Noir and Chardonnay – Burgundy. The soils range from sandy loams at the base of the valley, to the silty, clay and shale loam soils found at higher elevations at the foot of the valley’s steep hillsides. These free-draining, shallow soils are well suited to viticulture as they cause stress in the vines, which leads to low vigor and yields, as well as berries with concentrated flavor.

Consequently, several varietals do well, from Pinot Noir in the west to Cabernet, Merlot & Grenache in the east. Several Rhône and Italian grape varietals have also gained acclaim in this versatile Santa Barbara County AVA.  From boutique wineries to multi-thousand case operations, each wine vintner has a dedication to producing wine that truly reflects the high quality and broad diversity of local grapes in the Santa Inez Valley.

 

Santa Maria Valley  (official AVA of Santa Barbara County)
The often foggy and windswept Santa Maria Valley is the northern most appellation in Santa Barbara County. The region’s first officially approved American Viticultural Area (AVA) enjoys extremely complex soil conditions and diverse microclimates. Chardonnay and Pinot Noir are two varieties which especially benefit from the ocean’s influence and are this AVA’s flagship wines.

The quality of Santa Maria Valley grapes is so widely recognized that the fruit is not just used in wine making at wineries in the appellation. Santa Maria Valley grapes are also used by wineries throughout Santa Barbara County and at many wineries outside of the county.  The Santa Maria Valley appellation is bounded by the San Rafael Mountains and the Los Padres National Forest to the east, and by the Solomon Hills and the city of Santa Maria to the west.

 

Sta. Rita Hills (official AVA of Santa Barbara County)
Sta. Rita Hills is actually within the Santa Ynez Valley appellation, although its unique soils and climate distinguish the grapes grown there from the ones in the warmer vineyards to the east. A typical day in Sta. Rita Hills starts with marine layer clouds and fog, which burn off by 10am; there is then two or three hours of calm sunshine until the on-shore winds pick up, cooling things down again. This maritime influence, combined with the sedimentary soils with patches of limestone is the perfect place to grow the appellation’s hallmark Chardonnay and Pinot Noir.

The Sta. Rita Hills appellation includes about 1700 planted acres within a 10 square mile area. Located between the towns of Buellton and Lompoc, the region is bounded by the La Purisima Hills to the north and the Santa Rosa Hills to the south, and intersected by the Santa Ynez River.
Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara (official AVA of Santa Barbara County)
Located in the far eastern edge of the Santa Ynez Valley AVA, Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara delves into the San Rafael Mountains just northwest of Lake Cachuma. Its inland position means a significantly warmer climate that ensures complete maturation for later ripening varieties. The rolling terrain, high slopes and varied soils of this region are best suited for growing Bordeaux varieties like Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot and Sauvignon Blanc, creating rich, concentrated wines. Syrah and other Rhône varieties also flourish here.

Ballard Canyon (official AVA of Santa Barbara County)
Ballard Canyon lies in the heart of the Santa Ynez Valley AVA where the unique soils and climate of the Canyon create a great environment for producing distinctive wines from red grapes such as Syrah, Grenache, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc and white grapes such as Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier and Roussanne.

Los Olivos District (official AVA of Santa Barbara County)
The Los Olivos District AVA, a broad alluvial terrace, between the Purisima Hills above Solvang and the western flank of the Happy Canyon area, is a unique geographical & geological feature distinguished by its relatively uniform topography, geology, and soil profile. Boundaries encompass the townships of Ballard, Santa Ynez, Los Olivos, and Solvang.

 

Other – Los Alamos Valley
Los Alamos Valley lies between Santa Maria Valley and Santa Ynez Valley. With warm days and very cold nights, the fruit from this region achieves incredible concentration and balance. Its slight, well drained soils and a wide range of microclimates allows for a diversity of varietals. Because Los Alamos Valley is not an official appellation, you won’t see it on a wine label – “Santa Barbara County” is used instead. But you should not be surprised to see Los Alamos Valley vineyard names specified on the label.

Los Alamos, which means “The Cottonwoods” in Spanish, is a town just off the 101 freeway between the Santa Maria Valley and Santa Ynez Valley appellations. The area around Los Alamos has a temperate climate all its own – ten degrees cooler than Santa Ynez Valley to the south and ten degrees warmer than Santa Maria Valley to the north-east. Los Alamos Valley is bounded to the north by Solomon Hills and to the south by La Purisima Hills.

美國加州葡萄酒產區_中北部山谷Yolo縣

舊金山附近的葡萄酒產區

北海岸地區:索諾瑪,納帕,索拉諾,馬林

灣區:康特拉科斯塔,聖馬特奧

中央山谷:阿拉米達(利弗莫爾),鄧尼根山,約洛縣,聖克拉拉

中央山谷面積廣闊,與加利福尼亞太平洋海岸線平行,行程超過400英里(650公里), 它位於內陸約100英里(160公里)的地方,吞沒了該州北部的三分之二,其邊界延伸至西部的沿海山脈和東部的內華達山脈。

從技術上講,中央山谷實際上是兩個山谷:北部的薩克拉門託山谷和南部的聖華金河谷,它們匯集在廣闊且水文複雜的薩克拉門托 – 聖華金河三角洲,這可能被視為舊金山海灣的自然延伸,並帶來了內陸50英里(80公里)的鹽和淡水的交匯點,所有這些水的存在不僅有助於降低溫度,而且還提供了所有重要的灌溉。

中央山谷是加州農業產量的重要組成部分,它向美國和世界的幾乎每個地方提供各種食品,從西紅柿和蘆筍到杏仁和杏,葡萄藤不可避免地進入了這個高產區,擁有出色的土壤和灌溉系統,中部山谷本身沒有產區,但山谷是許多鮮為人知的AVA(美國葡萄種植區)的所在地,其中最著名的是位於薩克拉門托南部的洛迪。

中央山谷是加州葡萄酒產業的主力軍,生產了該州一半以上的葡萄,這裡盛行的炎熱乾燥條件有利於高產,大部分收穫進入散裝葡萄酒市場,然而在選定的次區域,也正在生產越來越多的優質葡萄酒,具有較高天然酸度的葡萄,如Chenin Blanc、Colombard、Barbera、Chardonnay是表現最佳的葡萄。

 

Yolo County Wine

悠若Yolo縣是加利福尼亞州中央山谷和舊金山東北部最北端的葡萄酒產區,該縣是一個重要的農業產業的所在地,葡萄栽培只是其中的一小部分,這是番茄的主要國家,也就是說該縣擁有四個AVA以及加利福尼亞大學戴維斯分校最著名的葡萄酒(葡萄酒相關)學院。 Chardonnay、Chenin Blanc、Petite Syrah是該地區最重要的葡萄酒,然而,優質的赤霞珠,歌海娜以及較少量的Petit Verdot,Petit Sirah,Tempranillo也在Yolo縣取得了成功。

Yolo County位於著名的加州葡萄酒區中心,納帕縣位於西部的Vaca山上,湖縣位於Yolo縣的西北部,索拉諾縣與Yolo共享其北部邊界,Lodi AVA位於東南部。

這裡的四個子AVA遍布全縣, Capay Valley和Dunnigan Hills AVA位於西北角,Clarksburg和Merritt Island位於薩克拉門托河邊緣,形成該縣的東部邊界。

在這條河上,海洋影響蔓延,Yolo縣比中央山谷內的大多數其他AVA稍微涼爽。在克拉克斯堡(Clarksburg)和梅里特島(Merritt Island)尤其如此,霧和沿海風使葡萄園日常降溫,延長了生長季節,然而這裡肥沃排水不良的土壤更有利於高產,而不是高品質,使這兩種AVA非常適合大量生產涼爽氣候的葡萄酒。

西部的Dunnigan Hills和Capay Valley更適合生產優質葡萄酒,較高的海拔意味著更明顯的晝夜溫度變化,仔細的選址可以優化任何給定葡萄園的陽光和風暴,Dunnigan Hills乾燥,肥沃的土壤提供了良好的排水性,導致葡萄產量較低,具有極佳的風味濃度。

Yolo縣(以前稱為“Fremont”郡)是加利福尼亞州最初的18個縣之一,它成立於1850年。與加利福尼亞州的大部分地區一樣,葡萄酒釀造在1850年代加州淘金熱期間來到該地區。人們一致認為“Yolo”是美洲原住民,意為“豐富的草原”。流行文化為該縣樂於採用的詞語提供了另一種選擇:

“YOLO”是“You Only Live Once”的首字母縮寫。

California – North Central Valley Wine Region; Yolo County

Wine Regions near San Francisco

North Coast Region: Sonoma, Napa, Solano, Marin

Bay Area: Contra Costa, San Mateo

Central Valley: Alameda (Livermore), Dunnigan Hills, Yolo County, Santa Clara

The Central Valley is a vast area, running parallel to California’s Pacific coastline for more than 400 miles (650km). Located about 100 miles (160km) inland, it swallows up the northern two-thirds of the state, with its boundaries extending to the Coastal Ranges in the west and the Sierra Nevada mountains in the east.

Technically speaking, the Central Valley it is in fact two valleys: the Sacramento Valley in the north and the San Joaquin Valley in the south. They converge at the extensive and hydrologically complex Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta. This might be viewed as a natural extension of the San Francisco bays, and brings the meeting point of the salt and fresh water some 50 miles (80km) inland. The presence of all this water not only contributes to lowering temperatures, but also provides all-important irrigation.

The Central Valley is a key component to California’s agricultural output. It supplies all types of foodstuffs to almost every part of the United States and the World, from tomatoes and asparagus to almonds and apricots. Inevitably, the grapevine has found its way into this highly productive area, which has excellent soil and irrigation systems. There is no Central Valley appellation per se, but the valley is home to a number of lesser-known AVAs (American Viticultural Areas), the most notable of which is Lodi, just south of Sacramento.

The Central Valley is the workhorse of California’s wine industry, producing more than half of the state’s grapes. The hot, dry conditions which prevail here are conducive to high yields, with the majority of the harvest going into the bulk wine market. However, in selected sub-regions, increasing quantities of high-quality wines are also being produced. Grapes with higher natural acidity, such as Chenin Blanc, Colombard, Barbera and Chardonnay, are among the best performers.

Yolo County Wine

Yolo County is the northernmost wine region within California’s vast Central Valley and northeast of San Francisco. The county is home to a significant agricultural industry of which viticulture is only a small part; this is prime tomato country. That said, the county boasts four(4) sub-AVAs as well as the most famous oenological (wine-related) college in California, at the University of California, Davis.  ChardonnayChenin Blanc and Petite Syrah are the most important wines produced in the region. However, excellent Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, and lesser production quantities of Petit Verdot, Petit Sirah, Tempranillo are also successful in Yolo County.

Yolo County is in the middle of a cluster of famous Californian wine zones. Napa County is just over the Vaca mountains to the west and Lake County is to the northwest of Yolo County.  Solano County shares its northern border with Yolo, and the Lodi AVA is in the southeast.

The four sub-AVAs here are spread out across the county. The Capay Valley and Dunnigan Hills AVAs are in the north-western corner, while Clarksburg and Merritt Island are along the edge of the Sacramento River, which forms the eastern border of the county.

It is up this river that marine influences creep, and Yolo County is slightly cooler than most of the other AVAs within the Central Valley. This is particularly true in Clarksburg and Merritt Island, where fog and coastal winds cool the vineyards daily, extending the growing season. However, the fertile, poorly drained soils here are more conducive to high yields than high quality, making these two AVAs excellent for the bulk production of cool-climate-style wines.

Dunnigan Hills and Capay Valley in the west are better suited to producing quality wines. Higher altitude means a more-pronounced diurnal temperature variation, and careful site selection optimizes sunlight and wind exposure for any given vineyard.  The dry, loamy soils of Dunnigan Hills offer excellent drainage, leading to lower yields of grapes with an excellent concentration of flavor.

Yolo County (previously named “Fremont” County) was one of California’s original 18 counties, and it was formed in 1850. As in much of California, winemaking came to the region during the California Gold Rush of the 1850s. There is a consensus that “Yolo” is Native American in origin, meaning “abundant grasslands”.  Popular culture has offered up an alternative meaning for the word that has been happily adopted by the county:

“YOLO” is an acronym for ‘You Only Live Once.’

淺談 白葡萄品種Chardonnay(夏多內)

如果紅葡萄酒之王是赤霞珠(Cabernet Sauvignon),那白葡萄酒之王就是Chardonnay(夏多內)了,他是一款非常穩定優質、豐富和複雜的白葡萄品種。這是一款非常多用途的葡萄品種,在全球各地都能良好生長,在勃艮第他被用於精緻的白葡萄酒,如Montrachet,Meursault,Pouilly-Fuissè和真正的夏布內,香檳酒中它變成了Blanc de Blancs,法國以外,夏多內展現最好的非美國加州莫屬了,知名產區Napa、Sonoma是最好產區,也有許多其他國家釀成夏多內fever.

夏多內在20世紀30年代被引入加利福尼亞,但直到20世紀70年代才開始流行,如安德森谷、卡內羅斯、蒙特雷、俄羅斯河、聖伊內斯(聖巴巴拉)和聖瑪麗亞谷等地區現在生產的葡萄酒遠遠超過20年前的葡萄酒.

雖然有一個名叫夏多內的馬康納村莊,但是葡萄的起源並沒有明確的一致,甚至可能是中東.

製作精良時,夏多內呈現蘋果、無花果、甜瓜、梨、桃、菠蘿、檸檬、葡萄柚、香料,蜂蜜,黃油,奶油糖果和榛子的大膽口味,成熟豐富和強烈的水果口味,釀酒師使用常見的釀造技術,例如桶式發酵,老化過程(葡萄酒留在其天然沉積物中)和蘋果乳酸發酵(一種將蘋果酸轉化為更柔軟的過程)來使這種易於操作的葡萄酒變得更加複雜乳酸),沒有其他白葡萄酒可以像橡木桶陳釀或桶裝發酵一樣享用夏多內夏多內葡萄具有相當中性的風味,並且由於它們通常被粉碎或壓榨,不像紅葡萄酒那樣用果皮發酵,無論從葡萄中出現的任何風味在粉碎後幾乎立即被提取,通過發酵浸泡幾天或幾週的紅葡萄酒,可以完全不同地提取其風味.

由於夏多內也是一個多產的品種,每英畝可以輕鬆生產4-5噸優質葡萄,因此成為每個種植它的,國家生產者的搖錢樹,許多美國和澳大利亞的夏多內都非常華麗美味,並且散發誘人香氣,但它們缺乏豐富性、深度、專注度,並且實際上進化得相當快,常常在一兩年內失去它們的強度和濃度,許多葡萄酒商研究並認識到這一點後,現在正在大幅度降低作物產量,將噸位降至每英畝2至3噸,相信這將導致更大的集中度,這種策略唯一的缺點是較低的作物量會導致出售葡萄酒的數量大大減少,從而導致夏多內價格上漲.

夏多內的受歡迎程度也導致了普通夏多內葡萄酒的巨大市場,所以這個品種有多種質量可供選擇,有相當數量的國產夏多內,可以從簡單和乾燥到更複雜、更高層次。生產商在葡萄酒上的名稱,通常是價格,是質量水平的唯一指標.

法國以外,夏多內展現最好的非美國加州莫屬了,知名產區Napa、Sonoma是最好產區

推薦精品夏多內白葡萄酒

火影亞索尼詩 夏多內白葡萄酒

The Arsonist Chardonnay

NT$1,200

Matchbook’s 2016 The Arsonist夏多內展示了Dunnigan Hills的品質,是一款無縫融合橡木和水果的甘美酒。 我們手工挑選我們莊園種植的最好的桶裝水果來製作這款夏多內。我們在晚上挑選了我們的夏多內克隆4和124(Dijon)。在日出前將莊園水果,在不到30分鐘的時間內從葡萄樹送達破碎機,保留新鮮水果風味。我們使用了一種釀酒師最喜歡的混合酵母,以確保複雜的發酵特徵得以發展。這些精心挑選的水果酒槽中頻繁攪拌在桶發酵。然後只挑選最好的10%,讓他們在保持頻繁的攪拌程序的同時再額外六個月。然後再次進行評估,最初的前10%中僅有一半入選2016年火影Arsonist夏多內的最終混合物。
A luscious wine with seamless integration of oak and fruit, Matchbook’s 2016 The Arsonist Chardonnay showcases the quality of the Dunnigan Hills. We hand-select the best barrel lots of our estate-grown fruit to craft this Chardonnay.

  • 年        份:2016
  • 酒        廠:Matchbook
  • 產  區:Dunnigan Hills AVA
  • 葡萄品種:Chardonnay 100%
  • 酒精濃度:14.3%
  • 品酒筆記:Matchbook的2016 The Arsonist夏多內展示了Dunnigan Hills AVA產區的品質,是一款無縫融合橡木和水果的甘甜美酒。 手工挑選我們莊園種植的最好的桶裝水果來製作這款夏多內。 玻璃杯中美麗的稻草色打開誘人的奶油和金銀花香氣,與香草香料混合。 奶油糖,焦糖布丁,菠蘿和芒果的口味將這種豐富的葡萄酒帶入了生活
  • 試飲溫度:10°C~12°C
  • 佐餐食物:非常適合當開胃酒,特別是奶油醬汁料理,如:阿爾弗雷多寬麵、奶油龍蝦
  • Tasting Notes: A beautiful straw color in the glass opens to enticing aromas of cream and honeysuckle that mingles with vanilla spice. Flavors of butterscotch, crème brûlèe, pineapple and mango bring this rich wine to life. The Arsonist is big and creamy, yet welcoming in its nuanced synthesis of flavors.
  • Pairings: Enjoy as an apéritif, or pair with fettuccine alfredo, poached lobster drawn in butter or your favorite salmon recipe.

https://bit.ly/2zfRdEV

葡萄品種特徵入門(二)

CHARDONNAY(白色)

由於赤霞珠是紅葡萄酒之王,白葡萄酒之王就是霞多麗了,因為它使持續優質,豐富和復雜的白葡萄酒。這是一款非常多用途的葡萄,可在全球各地生長良好,在勃艮第它被用於精緻的白葡萄酒,如Montrachet,Meursault,Pouilly-Fuissè和真正的夏布利。在香檳酒中,它變成了Blanc de Blancs。澳大利亞已成為霞多麗產區的主要產區,其中許多其他國家釀成霞多麗fever.

霞多麗在20世紀30年代被引入加利福尼亞,但直到20世紀70年代才開始流行,如安德森谷、卡內羅斯、蒙特雷、俄羅斯河、聖伊內斯(聖巴巴拉)和聖瑪麗亞谷等地區現在生產的葡萄酒遠遠超過20年前的葡萄酒.

雖然有一個名叫霞多麗的馬康納村莊,但是葡萄的起源並沒有明確的一致,甚至可能是中東.

製作精良時,霞多麗呈現蘋果、無花果、甜瓜、梨、桃、菠蘿、檸檬、葡萄柚、香料,蜂蜜,黃油,奶油糖果和榛子的大膽口味,成熟豐富和強烈的水果口味,釀酒師使用常見的釀造技術,例如桶式發酵,老化過程(葡萄酒留在其天然沉積物中)和蘋果乳酸發酵(一種將蘋果酸轉化為更柔軟的過程)來使這種易於操作的葡萄酒變得更加複雜乳酸),沒有其他白葡萄酒可以像橡木桶陳釀或桶裝發酵一樣享用霞多麗,霞多麗葡萄具有相當中性的風味,並且由於它們通常被粉碎或壓榨,不像紅葡萄酒那樣用果皮發酵,無論從葡萄中出現的任何風味在粉碎後幾乎立即被提取,通過發酵浸泡幾天或幾週的紅葡萄酒,可以完全不同地提取其風味.

由於霞多麗也是一個多產的生產商,每英畝可以輕鬆生產4-5噸優質葡萄,因此它是種植它的每個國家的生產者的搖錢樹,許多美國和澳大利亞的霞多麗都非常華麗美味,並且散發誘人香氣,但它們缺乏豐富性、深度、專注度,並且實際上進化得相當快,常常在一兩年內失去它們的強度和濃度,許多葡萄酒商研究並認識到這一點後,現在正在大幅度降低作物產量,將噸位降至每英畝2至3噸,相信這將導致更大的集中度,這種策略唯一的缺點是較低的作物量會導致出售葡萄酒的數量大大減少,從而導致霞多麗價格上漲.

霞多麗的受歡迎程度也導致了普通霞多麗葡萄酒的巨大市場,所以這個品種有多種質量可供選擇,有相當數量的國產霞多麗,可以從簡單和乾燥到更複雜、更高層次。生產商在葡萄酒上的名稱,通常是價格,是質量水平的唯一指標.

CHENIN BLANC(白)

這位盧瓦爾河谷人物有兩個性格 – 在法國,Chenin Blanc是Vouvray和Anjou,Quarts de Chaume和Saumur等著名的長壽白人的基礎,然而在其他國家,Chenin Blanc只是一個很好的混合葡萄,這是南非種植最多的葡萄,儘管它在那裡被稱為“Steen”,在南非和加利福尼亞州,它主要用作普通桌上葡萄酒的混合葡萄, Chenin Blanc在加州表現更好;它可以產生愉快的葡萄酒,帶有微妙的甜瓜,桃子,香料和柑橘香,偉大的盧瓦爾白葡萄酒從乾,新鮮到甜甜,取決於年份和製作者,在南非Chenin Blanc甚至用於強化葡萄酒和烈酒.

DOLCETTO(紅色)

除了意大利西北部皮埃蒙特以外,Dolcetto還生產柔和,圓潤,果香的葡萄酒,香氣濃郁的甘草和杏仁,應在三年內飲用,Dolcetto被用作Nebbiolo和Barbera葡萄酒生產商的安全網,需要更長的時間,有七個相關的DOC:阿奎、阿爾巴、阿斯蒂、迪諾阿爾巴、多利亞尼、朗加蒙雷加利斯、奧瓦達.

 

FUMÉBLANC(白色)

參見Sauvignon Blanc

 

GAMAY(紅色)

薄酒萊葡萄酒使其著名, 紅色果味許多來自Gamay葡萄之一,Gamay NoiràJus Blanc。酒精含量低,酸度相對較高,這些葡萄酒在裝瓶後很快就會被喝掉,博若萊新酒,幾乎在一夜之間到處都是貨架,它也生長在盧瓦爾河,但成果適中,瑞士人廣泛種植GAMAY(佳美)葡萄,主要用於與黑皮諾混合;他們經常將葡萄酒切片(即加入糖預發酵以增加葡萄酒的酒精含量).

同時加利福尼亞州種植了一種名為Gamay Beaujolais的品種,它是高產黑比諾的clones克隆品種,在大多數地方作為table wines酒。在美國,Gamay葡萄主要用於混合。然而GAMAY佳美種植面積正在下降,因為那些認真生產優質黑皮諾的品種在較涼爽的地區使用優質葡萄無性系和種植.

GEWÜRZTRAMINER(白色)

Gewürztraminer可以釀出出色的葡萄酒,法國阿爾薩斯就是最好的證明它有多種風格,從干到甜,這種葡萄需要涼爽的氣候才能熟化,它是一種生長和釀造有氣質的葡萄酒好的選擇,它的強烈辣味可以在不加選擇的情況下咄咄逼人,在最好的情況下,它產生一種清脆酸度的花香清爽葡萄酒與辛辣菜餚搭配最好,如果遲收可以產生非常豐富和復雜優質的甜品酒,它在東歐,新西蘭和太平洋西北地區也很受歡迎.

 

GRENACHE(紅色)

耐乾旱和耐熱,歌海娜產生果味,辛辣,中等酒體,柔順的單寧。世界上第二大種植葡萄,歌海娜在羅納河南部廣泛流行,它被混合生產Châteauneuf-du-Pape,並單獨用於Tavel和Lirac的桃紅葡萄酒;它也被用於法國的甜巴尼葡萄酒,歌海娜在西班牙很重要,它被稱為Garnacha Tinta;尤其值得注意的是里奧哈和普里奧拉托。歌海娜曾經在澳大利亞流行,但現在已被西拉超越.

一些巴羅莎谷生產商正在製作類似於新堡教皇的葡萄酒,在加利福尼亞州,歌海娜是一種混合葡萄的“主力”,雖然偶爾會找到一個古老的葡萄園,葡萄釀成的葡萄酒可能非常好,這似乎正在復甦,因為羅納風格的葡萄酒愛好者尋求涼爽的地區和適當的混合葡萄.

此外,在西班牙稱為Garnacha Blanca的Grenache Blanc瓶裝在南羅訥河谷,它被用於混合法國的Rousillon魯西榮和Languedoc朗格多克,以及西班牙各種白酒,包括Rioja.里奧哈。

  

GRÜNERVELTLINER(白色)

奧地利種植最廣的葡萄,在東歐其他地區的發現程度較低, 它在維也納西部多瑙河沿岸的Wachau,Kremstal和Kamptal地區實現了定性的巔峰。 由於它的簡稱,它顯示出獨特的白胡椒、煙草、小扁豆、柑橘和香味,以及高酸度,使其成為食品的優秀合作夥伴, Grüner的風味獨特,雖然它很少達到最好的奧地利雷司令的精細和繁殖,但它在酒體和質地上都很相似.

MALBEC(紅色)

波爾多和盧瓦爾在各種混合物中一度很重要,馬爾貝克一直由梅洛和兩個赤霞珠取代,然而這種不太耐寒的葡萄在阿根廷和智利取得了巨大的成功,在美國馬爾貝克僅被用作混合葡萄。然而一些釀酒廠使用馬爾貝克,因為它被認為是波爾多混合配方的一部分.

MARSANNE(白色)

Marsanne在Rhine中很受歡迎,還有Grenache Blanc,Roussanne和Viognier,在澳大利亞,尤其是維多利亞州,有一些世界上最古老的馬桑訥葡萄園,在最好的情況下,Marsanne可以是濃郁,中等強度的葡萄酒,配以香料,梨和柑橘香調.

 

MERLOT(紅色)

美樂是21世紀最受歡迎的紅酒,它的受歡迎程度隨著它的種植面積一路飆升,似乎葡萄酒愛好者不能喝足夠多的葡萄酒,它主宰波爾多,除了梅多克和格雷夫斯,雖然它主要用於波爾多混合,但它可以獨立使用。特別是在St.-Emilion和波美侯,Merlot生產值得一提的葡萄酒,最終在ChâteauPétrus酒莊釀製,在意大利,美樂是無處不在的,雖然大部分美樂都是桌上酒,然而Ornellaia和Fattoria de Ama是特別例外,儘管梅洛受歡迎程度一直很高,但大部分時間梅洛的質量都不錯,但是在全球範圍內還是有一些忠實生產商.

幾種風格已經出現,一種是赤霞珠式梅洛,其中包括高比例的赤霞珠(高達25%),相似的醋栗和櫻桃風味以及單寧堅挺,第二種風格不太依賴赤霞珠,它更柔軟,更柔軟、中等重量、單寧較少的葡萄酒,並具有更多的草藥、櫻桃、巧克力口味,第三種風格是非常簡單和簡單的葡萄酒,這種品種推動了美樂的整體增長.

就像赤霞珠一樣,梅洛可以從一些混合中受益,因為赤霞珠可以賦予其色彩和單寧強度,它也與橡木結合, 1970年代初美樂被引入加州,隨著成熟和成熟的不均衡,這是一種困難的葡萄種植,許多葡萄酒專家認為華盛頓州的葡萄酒質量略有優勢,美樂的老化潛力是公平的,隨著年齡的增長,它會變得更柔軟,但水果味通常會消失,而草藥味則占主導地位.

Merlot Blanc是一種多元化的白葡萄.

 

RIESLING(白色)

雷司令葡萄的耐寒木材是世界上最好的白葡萄酒之一,因此它非常耐霜凍,該品種在較涼爽的氣候中表現優異,因為它具有緩慢成熟的趨勢,使其成為用葡萄製成的甜葡萄酒的良好來源,這種葡萄受葡萄腐爛(真菌)Botrytis灰黴病的侵害,葡萄皮會枯萎並濃縮其天然糖水平.

雷司令以生產德國Mosel-Saar-Ruwer,Pfalz,Rheinhessen和Rheingau的葡萄酒而聞名,但它在阿爾薩斯和奧地利也取得了輝煌。甜蜜的德國Beerenauslese和Trockenbeerenauslese葡萄酒以及阿爾薩斯著名的穀物貴族名莊常常因其高糖水平和幾乎無盡的陳年而聞名,但是它們非常罕見且昂貴.

更常見的是雷司令產生乾燥或乾燥的版本,它的高酸度,獨特花香、柑橘、桃子、礦物質口味,已經贏得了乾雷司令的很多粉絲,這個品種與食物配對得很好,並且具有用於傳送其葡萄園源元素(法國人稱之為terroir)的不可思議的訣竅.

來自德國摩澤爾地區的葡萄酒可能是葡萄的最純粹的表現形式,它在輕盈而活潑的框架上提供酸橙、餡餅皮、蘋果、石板、金銀花特徵,德國的Rheinhessen,Rheingau和Pfalz地區生產的葡萄酒具有相似的特點,但是增加了酒體和香料.

在阿爾薩斯,雷司令通常更具乾性風格,酒體飽滿,具有獨特的汽油香味,在奧地利雷司令在數量上僅次於Grener Veltliner,但如果種植在受歡迎的地方,則可提供非常專注和清晰的葡萄酒.

在其他地區,在加利福尼亞州、俄勒岡州、華盛頓州、紐約的手指湖區、澳大利亞、新西蘭、南非、南美和加拿大,可以找到雷司令(通常在白雷司令,萊茵雷司令或約翰斯伯格雷司令等同義詞下).

 

SANGIOVESE(紅)

桑嬌維塞以提供許多極好的意大利紅葡萄酒為基礎,從基安蒂和布魯內洛迪蒙塔爾奇諾到所謂的超級托斯卡納混合酒,桑嬌維塞以其柔順的口感和中等至濃郁的香料、覆盆子、櫻桃和茴香口味而聞名,當與葡萄如赤霞珠配合使用時,桑嬌維塞葡萄酒的口感更平滑,單寧酸度更低。

鑑於意大利移民在該州葡萄酒釀造遺產中發揮的強大作用,桑嬌維塞在加利福尼亞州並不受歡迎,這有些令人驚訝,然而現在葡萄似乎有一個光明的未來,無論是作為一個獨立的品種葡萄酒,並與赤霞珠、梅洛、甚至仙粉黛混合使用,隨著釀酒師更多地了解葡萄在不同地區的表現,以及葡萄品種與其他葡萄品種的融合方式,葡萄酒的風格也會隨之變化。

SAUVIGNON BLANC(白色)

白蘇維濃是另一種具有顯著香味的白色,這是一種“草地”或“麝香”,純品種主要存在於盧瓦爾,桑塞爾和普伊富姆,波爾多在許多混合葡萄酒中使用這種葡萄, Pessac-Leognan,Graves和Medoc白人也是如此;它也出現在Sauternes。新西蘭在長相思(Sauvignon Blanc)方面取得了驚人的成功,生產出自己的香味,水果風味,遍布北美,然後回到法國。

在美國,羅伯特蒙達維在70年代通過給它貼上Fum來拯救這個品種?布蘭克,並取得了巨大的成功。其成功轉型為葡萄酒的關鍵似乎在於馴服其明顯的品種強度,其極端導致刺激的草地,植物和草本風味。許多釀酒師用一種窮人的霞多麗來對待它,採用桶式發酵,老化和蘋果乳酸發酵。但它的受歡迎程度來自它是一個驚人的生產商和一個高利潤的葡萄酒。它可以清脆爽口,與食物相匹配,生產和生長的成本比霞多麗低。然而,它的銷售量較少,受到的葡萄酒人士的尊重可能低於其應有的水平。它的流行趨勢漸漸消退,有時似乎挑戰霞多麗。

Sauvignon Blanc以各種產區生長良好。 它與橡木和賽美蓉的結合良好,許多葡萄酒商為額外的身體增添了一絲霞多麗。 這種酒在年輕時飲用最好,但有時會從短期窖藏中受益。 作為一款收穫豐富的葡萄酒,它往往是太棒了,能夠釀造出複雜而口感豐富的葡萄酒。

 

SÉMILLON(白)

無論是單獨還是混合,這種白葡萄酒都會老化,與其傳統合作夥伴Sauvignon Blanc一起,這是Sauternes的基礎以及Graves和Pessac-Léognan的大部分乾白葡萄酒,這些混合物是豐富的甜味葡萄酒,賽美蓉是易受灰葡萄孢菌(真菌)影響的葡萄之一,澳大利亞的獵人谷使用賽美蓉獨奏來釀造一種白酒,它曾被稱為“飢餓雷司令”,夏布利或白勃艮第,在南非它曾經非常流行,被稱為“葡萄酒”,但它在那裡的重要性急劇下降。

在美國,賽美蓉作為加利福尼亞州和華盛頓的品種葡萄酒享有微薄的成功,但它在加利福尼亞的種植面積繼續減少。它可以製作出美妙的晚收葡萄酒,釀成均衡的葡萄酒,還有復雜的無花果、梨、煙草和蜂蜜味。當Semiilon與Sauvignon Blanc混合時,它增加了酒體、味道和質感,當Sémillon加入長相思時,後者得到草本植物香草,它也可以與霞多麗混合使用,更多的是填充葡萄酒的量,而不是添加任何葡萄酒的口味。

 

SYRAH或SHIRAZ(紅色)

法國的Hermitage和Côte-Rôtie,澳大利亞的Penfolds Grange是Syrah的主要消息來源,西拉的縮影是一種可以長達半個世紀的雄偉紅酒。葡萄似乎在許多地方生長良好,能夠呈現豐富,複雜和獨特的葡萄酒,帶有明顯的胡椒、香料、黑櫻桃、焦油、皮革和烤堅果風味,柔滑順滑的單寧,在法國南部,它可以找到各種混合方式,如在教皇新堡和朗格多克 – 魯西永,在澳大利亞被稱為西拉,西拉長期在麵包和黃油混合物中使用,但越來越多的高品質裝瓶,特別是從巴羅莎山谷的老葡萄園。

在美國西拉品質的提升令人印象深刻,它似乎有黑皮諾和仙粉黛的早期飲用吸引力,以及梅洛的幾種偏心,除Cabernet Sauvignon之外,它可能證明比其他任何紅葡萄酒更容易生長和釀造。

 

TEMPRANILLO(紅色)

西班牙對紅葡萄酒的主要貢獻是Tempranillo,該國是土生土長的國家,很少在其他地方種植,這是來自西班牙最重要的兩個葡萄酒產區里奧哈和里貝拉德爾杜羅紅葡萄酒的主導葡萄。

在里奧哈、普蘭尼洛經常與Garnacha、Mazuelo和其他一些小葡萄混合,當以傳統風格製作時,Tempranillo可以是石榴石色調,有茶、紅糖、香草味道,以更現代的風格製作時,它可以展現出李子、煙草、黑醋栗的香氣和口感,還有非常深的顏色和大量的單寧,無論風格如何,Riojas傾向於中等酒體,比單寧酸度更高。

在里貝拉德爾杜羅,葡萄酒也按傳統和現代風格劃分,並與里奧哈相似,然而更現代的風格的里貝拉可以是相當強大的,提供類似於赤霞珠的密度和單寧結構, Tempranillo在西班牙各地被稱為Cencibel、Tinto del Pais、Tinto Fino、Ull de Llebre和Ojo,它也在葡萄牙的杜羅河沿岸,在名叫Tinta Roriz(用於製造港口)和Tinta Aragonez之下。

 

TREBBIANO或UGNI BLANC(白色)

Trebbiano被譽為意大利的Trebbiano和法國的Ugni Blanc,產量極高,酒精含量低,酸度高。,它幾乎可以在任何基本的意大利白葡萄酒中找到。,它在意大利葡萄酒釀造中如此根深蒂固,它實際上是用於(紅色)Chianti和Vino Nobile di Montepulciano的混合物的製成品,但是目前大多數托斯卡尼生產商不會將其添加到他們的葡萄酒中。

法國人也經常稱這種葡萄為St.-Émilion,用於乾邑和阿馬尼亞克白蘭地。

VIOGNIER(白色)

法國羅納河谷罕見的白葡萄維歐尼葡萄是最難釀的葡萄之一, 然而花香辣白葡萄酒的粉絲對法國南部和新世界的前景感到振奮, 到目前為止,在美國生產的維歐尼大多數是單維的,具有豐富的辣味,但比它們應該具有的複雜程度低。

它被用於Condrieu的稀有白葡萄酒,有時還會在北羅納河與紅葡萄酒混合使用, 法國南部也有各種各樣的裝瓶,其中大部分都很輕。

 

ZINFANDEL(紅色)

仙粉黛這種非常多才多藝和受歡迎的葡萄的起源並不完全清楚,儘管它被認為來自意大利南部,是Primitivo的堂兄,它是加利福尼亞州種植最廣泛的紅葡萄酒(儘管澳大利亞也在廣泛種植這種葡萄),其中大部分是釀造成白色仙粉黛,一種腮紅色,稍甜的葡萄酒,真正的仙粉黛紅葡萄酒,是典型的加州葡萄酒,它已被用於與其他葡萄混合,包括赤霞珠和小西拉,它採用紅葡萄酒風格製成,具有漿果和櫻桃風味,溫和的單寧和漂亮的橡木色調,仙粉黛被製成了一種濃郁的,超級濃郁,口感濃烈,單寧堅韌的葡萄酒,旨在延年益壽,此外仙粉黛可用於晚收的波特式葡萄酒,其特點是非常成熟的葡萄乾風味,耐嚼的(“黃油”)單寧和15%以上的酒精含量。

仙粉黛在消費者中的受歡迎程度波動,在2000年代仙粉黛再次受到歡迎,因為釀酒師重新引起興趣,專注於適合金粉黛種植的高品質葡萄園,風格主要針對主流而不是極端,強調葡萄的辛辣、辣椒、覆盆子、櫻桃、野生漿果、李子風味以及其複雜的焦油、泥土、皮革,仙粉黛也適用於混合。

金芬黛葡萄是一種充滿挑戰的葡萄,它的漿果大小在一堆中變化很大,這可能導致成熟不均勻,正因為如此,仙粉黛經常需要更長時間地掛在葡萄藤上,以盡可能提高漿果的成熟百分比,對金芬黛葡萄栽培的關注以及對老葡萄的欣賞,傾向於生產質量均勻一致的小作物,從而為葡萄酒提供更均衡的葡萄酒。

 

CHARDONNAY (White) [shar-dun-NAY]

As Cabernet Sauvignon is the king of red wines, so is Chardonnay the king of white wines, since it makes consistently excellent, rich and complex white wines. This is an amazingly versatile grape that grows well in a variety of locations globally. In Burgundy, it is used for the exquisite whites, such as Montrachet, Meursault, Pouilly-Fuiss?, and true Chablis. In Champagne, it turns into Blanc de Blancs. Australia has become a major Chardonnay-producing area, amongst the many other countries that have caught Chardonnay “fever”.

Chardonnay was introduced to California in the 1930s, but didn’t become popular until the 1970s. Areas such as Anderson Valley, Carneros, Monterey, Russian River, Santa Inez (Santa Barbara) and Santa Maria Valley are now producing wines far superior to those made just 20 years ago.
Though there is a M?connais village called Chardonnay, there is no clear agreement as to the grape’s origin—it may even be the Middle East.

When well-made, Chardonnay offers bold, ripe, rich and intense fruit flavors of apple, fig, melon, pear, peach, pineapple, lemon and grapefruit, along with spice, honey, butter, butterscotch and hazelnut flavors. Winemakers build more complexity into this easy-to-manipulate wine using common vinification techniques, i.e. barrel fermentation, sur lie aging (during which the wine is left on its natural sediment), and malolactic fermentation (a process which converts tart malic acid to softer lactic acid). No other white table wine benefits as much from oak aging or barrel fermentation as Chardonnay. Chardonnay grapes have a fairly neutral flavor, and because they are usually crushed or pressed and not fermented with their skins the way red wines are, whatever flavors emerge from the grape are extracted almost instantly after crushing. Red wines that soak with their skins for days or weeks through fermentation, extract their flavors quite differently.

Because Chardonnay is also a prolific producer, which can easily yield 4 to 5 tons of high-quality grapes per acre, it is a cash cow for producers in every country where it is grown. Many American and Australian Chardonnays are very showy, well-oaked and appealing on release, but they lack the richness, depth and concentration to age, and have in fact evolved rather quickly, often losing their intensity and concentration within a year or two. Many vintners, having studied and recognized this, are now sharply reducing crop yields, holding tonnage down to 2 to 3 tons per acre in the belief that this will lead to greater concentration. The only downside to this strategy is that lower crop loads lead to significantly less wine to sell, which results in higher prices for Chardonnay, as well.

Chardonnay’s popularity has also led to a huge market of ordinary Chardonnay-based wines, so there’s a broad range of quality to choose from in this varietal. There are a substantial number of domestic Chardonnays, which can range from simple and off-dry to more complex and sophisticated. The producer’s name on the wine, and often its price, are the sole indicators of the level of quality.

CHENIN BLANC (White) [SHEN’N BLAHNK]

This native of the Loire Valley has two personalities – in France, Chenin Blanc is the basis of such famous, long-lived whites as Vouvray and Anjou, Quarts de Chaume and Saumur. However, in other countries, Chenin Blanc becomes just a very good blending grape. It is South Africa’s most-planted grape, though it is called “Steen” there. Both in South Africa and in California, it is used primarily as a blending grape for generic table wines. Chenin Blanc performs better in California; it can yield a pleasant wine, with subtle melon, peach, spice and citrus notes. The great Loire whites vary from dry and fresh to sweet, depending on the vintage and the producer. In South Africa, Chenin Blanc is even used for fortified wines and spirits.

DOLCETTO (Red) [dole-CHET-to]

Almost exclusive to northwest Piedmont, Italy, Dolcetto results in soft, round, fruity wines, fragrant with licorice and almonds that should be drunk within three years. Dolcetto is used as a safety net for producers of Nebbioloand Barbera wines, which take much longer to age. There are seven related DOCs: Acqui, Alba, Asti, Dinao d’Alba, Dogliani, Langhe Monregalesi and Ovada.

FUMÉ BLANC (White) [FOO-may BLAHNK]

see Sauvignon Blanc

GAMAY (Red) [ga-MAY]

Beaujolais makes its famous, fruity reds exclusively from one of the many Gamay grapes available, the Gamay Noir ? Jus Blanc. Low in alcohol and relatively high in acidity, the wines are meant to be drunk soon after bottling; the ultimate example of this is Beaujolais Nouveau, moved onto shelves everywhere almost overnight. It is also grown in the Loire, but with moderate results. The Swiss grow Gamay grapes widely, primarily for blending with Pinot Noir; they often chaptalize the wines (i.e. adding sugar pre-fermentation to increase the alcohol content of the wine).

Meanwhile, California grows a variety called Gamay Beaujolais, a high-yield clone of Pinot Noir that makes table wines in most places where it’s grown. In the United States, the Gamay grape is used primarily for blending. However Gamay acreage is declining, as those serious about producing quality Pinot Noir are using superior grape clones and plantings in cooler areas.

GEWÜRZTRAMINER (White) [geh-VERTS-trah-mee-ner]

Gew?rztraminer can yield magnificent wines, as is best demonstrated in Alsace, France, where it is made in a range of styles, from dry to off-dry to sweet. This grape needs a cool climate in which to ripen. It’s a temperamental grape to grow and vinify, and its potent spiciness can be overbearing when unchecked. At its best, it produces a floral and refreshing wine with crisp acidity that pairs well with spicy dishes. When left for late harvest, it’s uncommonly rich and complex, and can result in a superior dessert wine.

It is also popular in Eastern Europe, New Zealand and the Pacific Northwest.

GRENACHE (Red) [greh-NAHSH]

Drought- and heat-resistant, Grenache yields a fruity, spicy, medium-bodied wine with supple tannins. The second most widely planted grape in the world, Grenache is widespread in the southern Rh?ne. It is blended to produce Ch?teauneuf-du-Pape, and used on its own for the ros?s of Tavel and Lirac; it is also used in France’s sweet Banyuls wine. Grenache is important in Spain, where it’s known as Garnacha Tinta; it is especially noteworthy in Rioja and Priorato. Grenache used to be popular in Australia, but has now been surpassed by Syrah. A few Barossa Valley producers are making wines similar to Ch?teauneuf-du-Pape. In California, Grenache a “workhorse” blending grape, though occasionally an old vineyard is found and its grapes are made into a varietal wine, which can be very good. It seems to be making a comeback, since enthusiasts of Rh?ne-style wines seek cooler areas and an appropriate blending grape.

Also, Grenache Blanc, known in Spain as Garnacha Blanca, is bottled in the Southern Rh?ne. It is used for blending in France’s Rousillon and Languedoc, and in various Spanish whites, including Rioja.

GRÜNER VELTLINER (White) [GROO-ner VELT-linner]

The most widely planted grape in Austria, it can be found to a lesser extent in some other parts of Eastern Europe. It achieves its qualitative pinnacle in the Wachau, Kremstal and Kamptal regions along the Danube River, west of Vienna. Gr?ner, as it’s called for short, shows distinct white pepper, tobacco, lentil and citrus flavors and aromas, along with high acidity, making it an excellent partner for food. Gr?ner is singularly unique in its flavor profile, and though it rarely achieves the finesse and breeding of the best Austrian Rieslings, it is similar in body and texture.

MALBEC (Red) [MAHL-beck]

Once important in Bordeaux and the Loire in various blends, Malbec has been steadily replaced by Merlot and the two Cabernets. However, this not-very-hardy grape has seen great success in Argentina and Chile. In the United States, Malbec is used as a blending grape only. However, a few wineries use Malbec because it is considered part of the Bordeaux-blend recipe.

MARSANNE (White) [mahr-SANN]

Marsanne is quite popular in the Rh?ne, along with Grenache Blanc, Roussanne and Viognier. In Australia, especially in Victoria, there are some of the world’s oldest Marsanne vineyards. At its best, Marsanne can be a full-bodied, moderately intense wine with spice, pear and citrus notes.

MERLOT (Red) [mur-LO]

Merlot is the red-wine success of the 21st Century. its popularity has soared along with its acreage, and it seems wine lovers can’t drink enough of it. It dominates Bordeaux, except for the M?doc and Graves. Though it is mainly used for the Bordeaux blend, it can stand alone. Especially in St.-Emilion and Pomerol, Merlot produces noteworthy wines, culminating in Ch?teau P?trus. In Italy, Merlot is pervasive, though most of the Merlot is table wine. However, Ornellaia and Fattoria de Ama are strong exceptions to that. Despite its popularity, Merlot’s quality ranges from good to very good most of the time, though there are a few stellar producers found globally.

Several styles have emerged. One is a Cabernet-style Merlot, which includes a high percentage of Cabernet (up to 25%), similar currant and cherry flavors and firm tannins. A second style is less reliant on Cabernet; it is softer, more supple, medium-weight, less tannic wine, and features more herb, cherry and chocolate flavors. A third style is a very light and simple wine; this varietal is fueling Merlot’s overall growth.

Like Cabernet, Merlot can benefit from some blending, as Cabernet can give it backbone, color and tannic strength. It also marries well with oak. Merlot was introduced to California in the early 1970s. It is a difficult grape to grow, as it matures and ripens unevenly. Many wine experts believe Washington State has a slight quality edge with this wine. Merlot’s aging potential is fair to good. It may become softer with age, but often the fruit flavors fade and the herbal flavors dominate. Merlot Blanc is an unrelated white grape.

MOURVÈDRE (Red) [more-VAY-druh]

As long as the weather is warm, Mourv?dre can adopt to a wide variety of soils. It is popular across the south of France, especially in Provence and the C?tes-du-Rh?ne, and is often used in Ch?teauneuf-du-Pape; Languedoc makes it as a varietal. Mourvedre is used widely in Spain, including Valencia. In the United States, it is sought a few wineries which specialize in Rh?ne-style wines. The wine can be pleasing, with medium-weight, spicy cherry and berry flavors and moderate tannins, and it ages well.

MUSCAT (White) [MUSS-kat]

Known as Muscat, Muscat Blanc and Muscat Canelli, it is marked by strong spice and floral notes. Muscat can be used in blending, its primary function in California, for Moscato in Italy, and Moscatel in Iberia. This grape can turn into a wide range of white wines, from the low-alcohol, sweet and frothy Asti Spumante and Muscat de Canelli, to bone-dry wines like Muscat d’Alsace. It also can produce fortified wines, such as Beaumes de Venise, Port, Sherry, and Madiera.

NEBBIOLO (Red) [NEH-bee-oh-low]

Nebbiolo is the great grape of Northern Italy, and excels there in Barolo and Barbaresco, strong, ageable wines. However, it cultivation has been comparatively unsuccessful elsewhere, except for some cultivation in California. These wines are light and uncomplicated, bearing little resemblance to their Italian cousins.

PETITE SIRAH (Red) [peh-TEET sih-RAH]

Known for its dark hue and firm tannins, Petite Sirah has often been used as a blending wine to provide color and structure, particularly in Zinfandel. On its own, Petite Sirah can also make intense, peppery, age-worthy wines, but few experts consider it as complex as Syrah itself.

There has been much confusion about Petite Sirah’s origins. For a long time, the grape was thought to be completely unrelated to Syrah, despite its name. Petite Sirah was believed to actually be Durif, a minor red grape variety first grown in southern France in the late 1800s. However, recent DNA research shows Petite Sirah and Syrah are related after all. A study done at the University of California at Davis determined not only that 90% of the Petite Sirah found in California is indeed Durif, but also that Durif is a cross between Peloursin and Syrah.

Just to make things more confusing, in France, growers refer to different variants of Syrah as Petite and Grosse, which has more to do with the yield of the vines.

PINOT BLANC (White) [PEE-no BLAHNK]

Often referred to as a poor man’s Chardonnay because of its similar flavor and texture profile, Pinot Blanc is used in Champagne, Burgundy, and Alsace in France; Germany, Italy and California. Pinot Blanc can make terrific wines. When well-made, it is intense, concentrated and complex, with ripe pear, spice, citrus and honey notes. Pinot Blanc can be aged, but is best consumed early, while its fruit shines through.

PINOT GRIS or PINOT GRIGIO (White) [PEE-no GREE or GREE-zho]

Known as Pinot Grigio in Italy, where it is mainly found in the northeast, producing quite a lot of good, dry white wine, and the excellent whites of Collio, Goriziano. As Pinot Gris, it was grown in Burgundy and the Loire, though it has been supplanted. However, it comes into its own in Alsace—where it’s known as Tokay. Southern Germany plants it as Rul?nder. When the grape yield is good, this varietal is soft, gently-perfumed, and has more color than most whites.

PINOT NOIR (Red) [PEE-no NWAH]

Pinot Noir, the great grape of Burgundy, is a touchy variety. The best examples offer the classic black cherry, spice, raspberry and currant flavors, and an aroma that can resemble wilted roses, along with earth, tar, herb and cola notes. It can also be rather ordinary, light, simple, herbal, vegetal and occasionally weedy. It can also be downright “funky”, with pungent barnyard aromas. In fact, Pinot Noir is the most fickle of all grapes to grow: It reacts strongly to environmental changes such as heat and cold spells. Once picked, Pinot Noir is notoriously fussy to work with, since its thin skins are easily bruised and broken, releasing the juices. Even after fermentation, Pinot Noir can hide its weaknesses and strengths, making it a most difficult wine to evaluate out-of-the-barrel. In the bottle, too, it is often a chameleon, showing poorly one day, brilliantly the next.
The emphasis on cooler climates coincides with more rigorous clonal selection, eliminating those clones suited for sparkling wine, which have even thinner skins. These days there is also a greater understanding and appreciation of different styles of Pinot Noir wine. There is less agreement about those styles—should they be rich, concentrated and loaded with flavor, or a wine of elegance, finesse and delicacy? Or can a classic Pinot Noir be both? Even the varietal character of Pinot Noir remains subject to debate. Pinot Noir can certainly be tannic, especially when it is fermented with its stems, a practice that many vintners around the world believe contributes to the wine’s backbone and longevity. Pinot Noir can also be long-lived, but predicting with any precision which wines or vintages will age is often the most difficult challenge in forecasting.
Pinot Noir is the classic grape of Burgundy and also of Champagne, where it is pressed immediately after picking in order to yield white juice. It is just about the only red grape grown in Alsace. In California, it has excelled in the late 1980s, early 1990s and into the 21st Century. Once producers stopped vinifying it as if it were Cabernet, planted vineyards in cooler climates and paid closer attention to tonnage, quality increased substantially. California and Oregon have a legitimate claim to producing world-class Pinot Noir.

RIESLING (White) [REES-ling]

One of the world’s greatest white wine grapes, the Riesling vine’s hardy wood makes it extremely resistant to frost. The variety excels in cooler climates, where its tendency to ripen slowly makes it an excellent source for sweet wines made from grapes, which are subject to the rot (fungus) Botrytis cinerea, which withers the grapes’ skin and concentrates their natural sugar levels.
Riesling is best known for producing the wines of Germany’s Mosel-Saar-Ruwer, Pfalz, Rheinhessen and Rheingau, but it also achieves brilliance in Alsace and Austria. The sweet German Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese wines, along with Alsace’s famed Selection de Grains Nobles, are often celebrated for their high sugar levels and ability to age almost endlessly. However, they are rare and expensive.

More commonly, Riesling produces dry or just off-dry versions. Its high acidity, with distinctive floral, citrus, peach and mineral accents, have won dry Riesling many fans. This variety pairs well with food, and has an uncanny knack for conveying the elements of its vineyard source (what the French call terroir).

The wines from Germany’s Mosel region are perhaps the purest expression of the grape, offering lime, pie crust, apple, slate and honeysuckle characteristics on a light-bodied and racy frame. Germany’s Rheinhessen, Rheingau and Pfalz regions produce wines with similar characteristics, but with increased body and spice.

In Alsace, Riesling is most often more of a dry style and full-bodied, with a distinct petrol aroma. In Austria, Riesling plays second fiddle to Grener Veltliner in terms of quantity, but when grown on favored sites, it offers wines with great focus and clarity.

In other regions, Riesling can be found (often under synonyms such as White Riesling, Rhine Riesling or Johannisberg Riesling) in California, Oregon, Washington, New York’s Finger Lakes region, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, South America and Canada.

SANGIOVESE (Red) [san-geeo-VEHS-eh]

Sangiovese is best known for providing the backbone for many superb Italian red wines, from Chianti and Brunello di Montalcino, to the so-called super-Tuscan blends. Sangiovese is distinctive for its supple texture and medium-to-full-bodied spice, raspberry, cherry and anise flavors. When blended with a grape such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Sangiovese gives the resulting wine a smoother texture, and reduced tannins.

It is somewhat of a surprise that Sangiovese isn’t more popular in California, given the strong role Italian immigrants have played in the State’s winemaking heritage. However, now the grape appears to have a bright future, both as a stand-alone varietal wine and for use in blends with Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and even Zinfandel. Expect sweeping stylistic changes as winemakers learn more about how the grape performs in different locales, as well as how it tastes integrated with other grapes varieties.

SAUVIGNON BLANC (White) [SO-vin-yon BLAHNK]

Sauvignon Blanc is another white with a notable aroma, this one is “grassy” or “musky.” The pure varietal is found mainly in the Loire, at Sancerre and Pouilly-Fume. Bordeaux uses this grape in many blended wines; the same is true for Pessac-L?ognan, Graves and the M?doc whites; it also shows up in Sauternes. New Zealand has had striking success with Sauvignon Blanc, producing its own perfumed, fruity style which spread across North America and then back to France.

In the United States, Robert Mondavi rescued the varietal in the 1970s by labeling it Fume Blanc, and met with great success. The key to its successful transformation to wine seems to be in taming its overt varietal intensity, which at its extreme leads to pungent grassy, vegetal and herbaceous flavors. Many winemakers treat it like in a sort of poor man’s Chardonnay, employing barrel fermentation, surelie aging and malolactic fermentation. But its popularity comes as well from the fact that it is a prodigious producer and a highly profitable wine to make. It can be crisp and refreshing, matches well with foods, costs less to produce and grow than Chardonnay. However, it sells for less and receives less respect from vintners than perhaps it should. Its popularity ebbs and flows, at times appearing to challenge Chardonnay.

Sauvignon Blanc grows well in a variety of appellations. It marries well with oak and S?millon, and many vintners are adding a touch of Chardonnay for extra body. The wine drinks best in its youth, but sometimes will benefit from short-term cellaring. As a late-harvest wine, it’s often fantastic, capable of yielding amazingly complex and richly flavored wines.

SÉMILLON (White) [SEM-ih-yon]

On its own or in a blend, this white wine can age. With Sauvignon Blanc, its traditional partner, this is the foundation of Sauternes and most of the great dry whites found in Graves and Pessac-Leognan. These blends are rich, honeyed wines. Semillon is one of the grapes susceptible to Botrytis cinerea (fungus). Australia’s Hunter Valley uses Semillon solo to make a full-bodied white that used to be known as “Hunger Riesling”, Chablis or White Burgundy. In South Africa, it used to be so prevalent that it was just called “wine grape,” but it has declined drastically in importance there.

In the United States, Semillon enjoys modest success as a varietal wine in California and Washington, but it continues to lose ground in acreage in California. It can make a wonderful late-harvest wine, resulting in well-balanced wines, with complex fig, pear, tobacco and honey notes. When Semiilon is blended into Sauvignon Blanc, it adds body, flavor and texture; when Sauvignon Blanc is added with Semillon, the latter gains grassy herbal notes.

It can also be found blended with Chardonnay, more to fill-out the volume of wine rather than to add anything to the taste of the wines.

SYRAH or SHIRAZ (Red) [sih-RAH or shih-RAHZ]

Hermitage and C?te-R?tie in France, Penfolds Grange in Australia are primary Syrah sources. The epitome of Syrah is a majestic red wine that can age for up to half a century. The grape seems to grow well in a number of areas, and is capable of rendering rich, complex and distinctive wines, with pronounced pepper, spice, black cherry, tar, leather and roasted nut flavors, a smooth, supple texture and smooth tannins. In Southern France, it finds its way into various blends, such as in Ch?teauneuf-du-Pape and Languedoc-Roussillon. Known as Shiraz in Australia, Syrah was long employed in bread-and-butter blends, but an increasing number of high-quality bottlings are being made, especially from old vines in the Barossa Valley.

In the United States, Syrah’s rise in quality is most impressive. It appears to have the early-drinking appeal of Pinot Noir and Zinfandel, and few of the eccentricities of Merlot. It may well prove far easier to grow and vinify than any other red wines, except for Cabernet Sauvignon.

TEMPRANILLO (Red) [temp-rah-NEE-yo]

Spain’s major contribution to red wine is Tempranillo, which is indigenous to the country and rarely grown elsewhere. It is the dominant grape in the red wines from Rioja and Ribera del Duero, two of Spain’s most important wine regions.

In Rioja, Tempranillo is often blended with Garnacha, Mazuelo and a few other minor grapes. When made in the traditional style, Tempranillo can be garnet-hued, with flavors of tea, brown sugar and vanilla. When made in a more modern style, it can display aromas and flavors redolent of plums, tobacco and cassis, along with very dark color and substantial tannins. Whatever the style, Riojas tend to be a medium-bodied wine, offering more acidity than tannin.

In Ribera del Duero, wines are also divided along traditional and modern styles, and show similarities to Rioja. The more modern styled Riberas, however, can be quite powerful, offering a density and tannic structure similar to that of Cabernet Sauvignon. Tempranillo is known variously throughout Spain as Cencibel, Tinto del Pais, Tinto Fino, Ull de Llebre and Ojo. It’s also grown along the Douro River in Portugal, under the monikers Tinta Roriz (used in the making of Port) and Tinta Aragonez.

TREBBIANO or UGNI BLANC (White) [treh-bee-AH-no or OO-nee BLAHNK]

Known as Trebbiano in Italy and Ugni Blanc in France, Trebbiano is tremendously prolific, low in alcohol, but high in acidity. It is found in almost any basic white Italian wine. It is so ingrained in Italian winemaking that it is actually a sanctioned ingredient of the blends used for (red) Chianti and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano. However, most current Tuscan producers do not add it to their wines.

The French, who also often call this grape St.-?milion, used it for Cognac and Armagnac brandy.

VIOGNIER (White) [vee-oh-NYAY]

Viognier, the rare white grape of France’s Rh?ne Valley, is one of the most difficult grapes to grow. However, the fans of the floral, spicy white wine are thrilled by its prospects in the south of France and the New World. So far most of the Viognier produced in the United States is rather one-dimensional, with an abundance of spiciness, but less complexity than they should have.

It is used in Condrieu’s rare whites and sometimes blended with reds in the Northern Rh?ne. There are also a variety of bottlings available from southern France, most of them somewhat light.

ZINFANDEL (Red) [ZIHN-fan-dell]

The origins of this tremendously versatile and popular grape are not known exactly, although it is thought to have come from Southern Italy, as a cousin of Primitivo. It is the most widely planted red grape in California (though Australia is also cultivating this grape extensively). Much of it is vinified into white Zinfandel, a blush-colored, slightly sweet wine. Real Zinfandel, the red wine, is the quintessential California wine. It has been used for blending with other grapes, including Cabernet Sauvignon and Petite Sirah. It has been made in a claret style, with berry and cherry flavors, mild tannins and pretty oak shadings. Zinfandel has been made into a full-bodied, ultraripe, intensely flavored and firmly tannic wine, designed to age. Also, Zinfandel can be used in late-harvest, Port-style wines, which feature very ripe, raisin-y flavors, chewy (“buttery”) tannins and an alcohol content above 15%.

Zinfandel’s popularity among consumers fluctuates. In the 2000’s, Zinfandel is enjoying another groundswell of popularity, as winemakers have taken renewed interest, focusing on higher-quality vineyards in areas well suited to Zinfandel cultivation. Styles aimed more for the mainstream and less for extremes, emphasizing the grape’s zesty, spicy pepper, raspberry, cherry, wild berry and plum flavors, and its complex range of tar, earth and leather notes. Zinfandel also lends itself to blending.

Zinfandel is a challenging grape to grow. Its berry size varies significantly within a bunch, which may lead to uneven ripening. Because of that, Zinfandel often needs to hang on the vine longer, in order to maximize the percentage of berries to ripen, as possible. Closer attention to Zinfandel viticulture and an appreciation for older vines, tend to produce smaller crops of uniformly higher quality, accounting for better balanced wines.

葡萄品種特徵入門(一)

為了欣賞葡萄酒,了解不同葡萄的特性以及如何在葡萄酒中表達這些特徵是至關重要的。Cabernet Sauvignon(卡本內蘇維濃或稱赤霞珠)、Merlot (梅洛)、Zinfandel(仙粉黛)都是紅葡萄,但在葡萄酒中,他們的個性非常不同。然而,即使以不同的稱謂生長並使用不同的技術進行釀造,特定的葡萄酒總是會顯示葡萄個性中固有的某些特質。 例如,Muscat(馬斯喀特)應該永遠是辛辣的; Sauvignon Blanc觸摸草藥;而Zinfandel(仙粉黛)是非常好吃,有胡椒和野生漿果味道,Cabernet Sauvignon(卡本內蘇維濃或稱赤霞珠)以梅花,黑醋栗和黑櫻桃風味和堅固的單寧為標誌。 了解葡萄的口味特徵是理解葡萄酒的基礎,此外,知道什麼葡萄可以在其中實現.

頂尖美酒鑑賞的精髓

在歐洲最好的葡萄酒主要以地理名稱命名(儘管這種情況正在改變,偶爾會標示法國和意大利葡葡萄品種),然而在其他地方,如美國、澳大利亞、南非、紐西蘭,大多數葡萄酒都以品種名稱標註,甚至有時通過葡萄組合(例如Cabernet-Shiraz)命名,在很大程度上,這是因為在美國會揀選ㄧ些在產區生長過程中最好的葡萄進行組合,美國人是首先以品種名稱引入美酒,歐洲人習慣用地區名稱釀製葡萄酒,歐洲將葡萄類型與土壤和氣候相匹配的歷史較長,研究更具決定性。例如:

Chardonnay(霞多麗)和Pinot Noir(黑皮諾)是勃艮第的主要葡萄.

Cabernet Sauvignon(卡本內蘇維濃或稱赤霞珠),Merlot (梅洛),Cabernet Franc(品麗珠),Malbec(馬爾貝克)和Petite Verdo(小維鐸)是波爾多的紅葡萄.

Syrah(西拉)主導了羅納河北部的紅軍.

Barolo和Barbaresco都是由Nebbiolo製成,但不同的稱謂產生不同風格的葡萄酒。

在義大利托斯卡尼,Sangiovese(桑嬌維塞)提供Chianti(基安蒂)的骨幹。然而,桑尼韋斯的不同clone(克隆)用於Brunello di Montalcino.

最終新世界的命名體系可能會演變成更像歐洲的體系,已經有加利福尼亞州的名稱如Carneros和Santa Maria Valley成為Chardonnay(霞多麗)和Pinot Noir(黑皮諾)的代名詞,俄勒岡州的威拉米特谷以黑比諾和澳大利亞獵人谷以西拉(shiraz、Syrah)而聞名,在加州、盧瑟福、奧克維爾、雄鹿躍區都與Chardonnay(霞多麗)紅葡萄酒相關,在這些稱謂中擁有既得經濟利益的葡萄酒廠和營銷影響力,強調這些地區葡萄酒的獨特特徵,將決定產區系統如何演化及特定的葡萄酒風格是否會出現,這些產區本身也將決定哪些葡萄出類拔萃,值得特別認可,以下是最常用葡萄的描述。美國葡萄酒也是由葡萄原生地命名,特別是(Concord)康科德葡萄釀製而成。葡萄酒按字母順序排列.

 

BARBERA(紅色)

在意大利的皮埃蒙特地區最為成功,在那裡生產Barbera d’Asti(巴貝拉達斯蒂)、Barbera di Monferato (巴貝拉迪蒙弗拉托)、Barbera di Alba(巴貝拉迪阿爾巴)等葡萄酒,它的葡萄酒具有高度的酸度(意味著亮度和脆度),深紅寶石般的顏色和酒體、單寧含量低,口味是漿果狀的,但是這種葡萄的種植在美國急劇下降,一些葡萄酒廠仍然生產它作為一種葡萄酒,但這些數字也在減少,作為混合酒,即使在炎熱的氣候下,它也具有保持自然高酸度的能力,這種葡萄酒比現在認識到的葡萄酒更具潛力,隨著意大利風格葡萄酒的普及,葡萄酒可能會出現小幅回升.

BRUNELLO(紅色)

這種Sangiovese(桑嬌維賽)葡萄品種是Brunello di Montalcino唯一的葡萄品種,這種稀有而昂貴的托斯卡尼紅葡萄酒,最好的是帶有甜美的黑色和紅色水果以及“耐嚼”的單寧.

CABERNET FRANC(紅色)

作為獨立的品種和混合葡萄,越來越受歡迎,Cabernet Franc(品麗珠)主要用於混合波爾多葡萄酒,儘管其品質可以上升到極高的高度,如大量出現在Cheval-Blanc白葡萄酒中,在法國的盧瓦爾河谷,它也被製成一種名為Chinon(希農)的淡酒,在意大利,特別是東北部,它有時被稱為Cabernet Frank(赤霞珠)或Bordo(博爾多),加州已經發展了30多年,其在華盛頓州,長島,新西蘭和阿根廷的知名度不斷提高, 作為品種的葡萄酒,它通常受益??於少量的Cabernet Sauvignon(赤霞珠)和Merlot(梅洛),然而它可以與任何一種葡萄酒一樣濃郁,但它往往偏離醋栗和漿果的味道,隨著年齡變得更加明顯的草本風味。鑑於其在美國的新穎性,Cabernet Franc(品麗珠)可能只是需要時間來獲得更多的關注和質量的提高,通常與赤霞珠混合blended with Cabernet Sauvignon,它可能是Cabernet Sauvignon赤霞珠突變適應較涼爽的主要因素,通常情況下,中等酒體的葡萄酒比Cabernet Sauvignon赤霞珠葡萄酒更加直接,並且在未熟的赤霞珠葡萄酒中可以看到一些草本的氣味.

 

CABERNET SAUVIGNON(紅色)

在世界的其他地方,赤霞珠可能會自己裝瓶,也可能是混合裝瓶,它與托斯卡尼的Sangiovese、澳大利亞和普羅旺斯的Syrah、南非的Merlot和Cabernet Franc混合在一起,但在意大利的一些超級托斯卡尼人中獨奏,在美國,任何地區都不可能超過納帕谷的高品質赤霞珠和赤霞珠混釀,通過加利福尼亞的大部分葡萄歷史(可追溯到19世紀),最好的赤霞珠都是100%的赤霞珠,自20世紀70年代後期以來,許多葡萄酒商轉向波爾多模式,將梅洛,品麗珠,馬爾貝克和嬌小維爾多的小部分融入他們的赤霞珠。混合案件仍在審查中,但顯然有成功。另一方面,許多美國生產商正在轉向更高比例的赤霞珠,發現混合不會增加複雜性,赤霞珠本身俱有更強的特性.
無議的紅葡萄酒之王Cabernet在法國的大部分地區都是穩定持久的表演者。雖然它在許多稱謂中都有很好的增長,但在特定的稱謂中,它能夠呈現不尋常的深度、豐富度、濃度和持久性的葡萄酒。波爾多地區自18世紀以來一直使用這種葡萄,並一直將其與品麗珠、美樂及小維鐸的汁液調配在一起。波爾多的模式不僅以製作複雜葡萄酒的渴望為基礎,而且還需要確保不同的葡萄品種在不同的時間,間隔成熟或賦予葡萄酒的顏色、單寧、酒體。

在最好的情況下,未經加工的赤霞珠葡萄酒釀造的葡萄酒味道濃烈,口感濃郁,它的經典口味是醋栗、李子、黑櫻桃和香料,也可以用“我的果醬 ”標記:草本、橄欖、薄荷、煙草、雪松、茴香和成熟。在溫暖的地區,它可以柔順而優雅,在較涼爽的地區,它可以用明顯的植物,甜椒、奧勒岡葉、焦油味道來標記(作為一種晚熟葡萄,赤霞珠並不總是依賴於涼爽的地區,這就是為什麼德國從未使用過這個品種),如果這是所需風格的特徵,它也可以很單寧,最好的赤霞珠以深色紫紅色開始,具有堅實的酸度、飽滿酒體、強烈的味道、濃郁的口感和堅挺單寧.

赤霞珠與橡木有親和力,通常在新的或使用過的法國或美國桶中花費15到30個月,如果執行得當,這種做法賦予葡萄酒一種木質香味的香柏木或香草味,同時緩慢氧化葡萄並柔化單寧,微量氣候是赤霞珠重量和強度的主要因素,釀酒師也會影響風格,因為他們可以提取高含量的單寧和重度橡木酒.

 

CARIGNAN(紅色)

也被稱為Carignane(加利福尼亞)和Cirnano(意大利), Carignan曾經是一種主要的混合葡萄酒,出現在一些混合酒中,舊葡萄園則因葡萄的強度而受到追捧,這是一種比較稀缺的葡萄酒,因為其他葡萄的強度和風味更強,在很多情況下都取代了它.

 

CARMENERE(紅色)

這種葡萄也被稱為Grande Vidure,曾經在波爾多廣泛種植,但現在主要與智利有關, Carmenere,Merlot和Cabernet Sauvignon於1850年左右進口到智利,據智利葡萄酒商稱,Carmenere長期以來被貼錯標籤,許多種植者甚至智利政府現在都認為它是美樂.

 

CHARBONO(紅色)

這種葡萄主要存在於加利福尼亞州(實際上可能與源於意大利皮埃蒙特的多爾切托葡萄有關),這種葡萄的種植面積已經減少,它作為一種葡萄酒的地位主要由Inglenook-Napa Valley支持,該谷地定期裝瓶Charbono,偶爾它會為了有趣的飲用而做出來,並且它很老,但更多的時候它是單寧和單寧 – 故事比實際的葡萄酒更好,一些酒莊仍然生產,但沒有任何成功。

A Primer on Grape Characteristics

In order to appreciate wine, it’s essential to understand the characteristics of different grapes, and how these characteristics are expressed in wines. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Zinfandel are all red grapes, but in wines their personalities are quite different. However, even when grown in different appellations and vinified using different techniques, a particular varietal wine always displays certain qualities, which are inherent in the grape’s personality.

For example, Muscat should always be spicy; Sauvignon Blanc a touch herbal; while Zinfandel is zesty, with pepper and wild berry flavors. Cabernet Sauvignon is marked by plum, currant and black cherry flavors and firm tannins.

Understanding the taste characteristics of a grape is fundamental to the understanding of wine. Furthermore, knowing what a grape can achieve at its

apex is the essence of fine wine appreciation

In Europe, the finest wines are known primarily by geographic appellation (although this is changing; witness the occasional French and Italian varietals). Elsewhere, however—as in America, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand—most wines are labeled by their varietal names; even, sometimes, by grape combinations (Cabernet-Shiraz, for example). To a large extent, this is because in the United States, the process of sorting-out which grapes grow best in which appellations is ongoing; Americans were first introduced to fine wine by varietal name. Europeans are used to wines with regional names. Europe has a longer history of matching grape types to soil and climate, and the research is more conclusive, e.g.:

Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, for instance, are the major grapes of Burgundy.

Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Malbec and Petite Verdot are the red grapes of Bordeaux.

Syrah dominates northern Rhône reds.

Barolo and Barbaresco are both made of Nebbiolo, but the different appellations produce different styles of wine. In Tuscany,

Sangiovese provides the backbone of Chianti. However, a different clone of Sangiovese is used for Brunello di Montalcino.

In time, the New World’s appellation system may well evolve into one more like Europe’s. Already California appellations such as Carneros and Santa Maria Valley are becoming synonymous with Chardonnay and Pinot Noir, Oregon’s Willamette Valley is known for Pinot Noir and Australia’s Hunter Valley for Shiraz. In California, Rutherford, Oakville and the Stags Leap District are all associated with Cabernet-based red table wines. Wineries, with vested financial interests in these appellations and the marketing clout to emphasize the distinctive features of the wines grown in these areas, will determine how the appellation system evolves and whether specific wine styles emerge. The appellations themselves will also determine which grapes excel and deserve special recognition.

The following are descriptions of the most commonly used Vitis vinifera grapes. American wine is also made from native Vitis labrusca, especially the Concord grape. The wine grapes are presented in alphabetical order.

BARBERA (Red) [bar-BEHR-uh]

Most successful in Italy’s Piedmont region, where it makes such wines as Barbera d’Asti, Barbera di Monferato and Barbera di Alba. Its wines are characterized by a high level of acidity (meaning brightness and crispness), deep ruby color and full body, with low tannin levels; flavors are berrylike. However, plantings of this grape have declined sharply in the United States. A few wineries still produce it as a varietal wine, but those numbers too are dwindling. As a blending wine, it has the ability to maintain a naturally high acidity, even in hot climates. The wine has more potential than is currently realized and may stage a modest comeback as Italian-style wines gain popularity.

BRUNELLO (Red) [broo-NEHL-oh]

This strain of Sangiovese is the only grape permitted for Brunello di Montalcino, the rare and costly Tuscan red that at its best is loaded with luscious black and red fruits and “chewy” tannins.

CABERNET FRANC (Red) [cab-er-NAY FRANK]

Increasingly popular as both a stand-alone varietal and a blending grape, Cabernet Franc is used primarily for blending in Bordeaux, although it can rise to great heights, singularly, in quality, as seen in the grand wine Cheval-Blanc. In France’s Loire Valley, it is also made into a lighter wine called Chinon. It is well established in Italy, particularly the northeast, where it is sometimes called Cabernet Frank or Bordo. California has grown it for more than 30 years, and its popularity is increasing in Washington State, Long Island, New Zealand and Argentina.

As a varietal wine, it usually benefits from small amounts of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. However, it can be as intense and full-bodied as either of those wines. But it often strays away from currant and berry notes into stalky green flavors that become more pronounced with age. Given its newness in the United States, Cabernet Franc may just need time to get more attention and rise in quality. Often blended with Cabernet Sauvignon, it may be a Cabernet Sauvignon mutation adapted to cooler, damper conditions. Typically, light- to medium-bodied wine with more immediate fruit than Cabernet Sauvignon and some of the herbaceous odors evident in unripe Cabernet Sauvignon.

CABERNET SAUVIGNON (Red) [cab-er-NAY SO-vin-yon]

The undisputed king of red wines, Cabernet is a remarkably steady and consistent performer throughout much of France. While it grows well in many appellations, in specific appellations it is capable of rendering wines of uncommon depth, richness, concentration and longevity.  Bordeaux has used the grape since the 18th century, always blending it with Cabernet Franc, Merlot and sometimes a soup?on of Petite Verdot. The Bordeaux model is built around not only the desire to craft complex wines, but also the need to ensure that different grape varieties ripen at different intervals or to give a wine color, tannin or backbone.

Elsewhere in the world, Cabernet Sauvignon is as likely to be bottled on its own, as well as in a blend. It mixes with Sangiovese in Tuscany, Syrah in Australia and Provence, and Merlot and Cabernet Franc in South Africa, but flies solo in some of Italy’s super-Tuscans. In the United States, it’s unlikely any region will surpass Napa Valley’s high-quality Cabernets and Cabernet blends. Through most of the grape’s history in California (which dates to the 1800s), the best Cabernets have been 100 percent Cabernet. Since the late 1970s, many vintners have turned to the Bordeaux model and blended smaller portions of Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Malbec and Petite Verdot into their Cabernets. The case for blending is still under review, but clearly there are successes. On the other hand, many U.S. producers are shifting back to higher percentages of Cabernet, having found that blending doesn’t add complexity and that Cabernet on its own has stronger character.

At its best, unblended Cabernet produces wines of great intensity and depth of flavor. Its classic flavors are currant, plum, black cherry and spice. It can also be marked by herb, olive, mint, tobacco, cedar, anise, and ripe, “jam-my” notes. In warmer areas, it can be supple and elegant; in cooler areas, it can be marked by pronounced vegetal, bell pepper, oregano and tar flavors (as a late ripening grape, cabernet sauvignon can’t always be relied on in cool areas, which is why Germany, for example, has never used this variety). It can also be very tannic if that is a feature of the desired style. The best Cabernets start out dark purple-ruby in color, with firm acidity, a full body, great intensity, concentrated flavors and firm tannins.

Cabernet has an affinity for oak and usually spends 15 to 30 months in new or used French or American barrels. When properly executed, this practice imparts a woody, toasty cedar or vanilla flavor to the wine, while slowly oxidizing it and softening the tannins. Microclimates are a major factor in the weight and intensity of the Cabernets. Winemakers also influence the style, as they can extract high levels of tannin and heavily oak their wines.

CARIGNAN (Red) [karin-YAN]

Also known as Carignane (California), & Cirnano (Italy). Once a major blending grape for jug wines, Carignan appears in some blends, and old vineyards are sought after for the intensity of their grapes. It is a comparatively scarce wine as other grapes with even more intensity and flavor have replaced it, in many cases.

CARMENERE (Red) [car-men-YEHR]

Also known as Grande Vidure, this grape was once widely planted in Bordeaux, but is now associated primarily with Chile. Carmenere, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon were imported to Chile around 1850. According to Chilean vintners, Carmenere has been mislabeled for so long that many growers and even the Chilean government now consider it as a Merlot.

CHARBONO (Red) [SHAR-bono]

Found mainly in California (and may actually be related to the Dolcetto grape originating from Piedmont, Italy), this grape has dwindled in acreage. Its stature as a wine was supported mainly by Inglenook-Napa Valley, which bottled a Charbono on a regular basis. Occasionally it made for interesting drinking and it aged well. But more often it was lean and tannic – the story was better than the actual wine. A few wineries still produce it, but none with any great success.

氣泡酒與香檳 – 有什麼區別 ?

你有沒有被一個傲慢的侍酒師或葡萄酒酒商指責汽泡酒不能稱做香檳酒? 你不知道為什麼? 這是因為雖然汽泡酒和香檳都有泡沫,但這僅是汽泡葡萄酒共同之處。

以下是兩者之間的五大主要區別:

1. 他們來自不同的地方
汽泡酒來自意大利東北部的威尼托地區,香檳來自法國東北部的香檳地區。 隨著舊世界葡萄酒釀造的悠久歷史,這些地區為他們的風土 – 葡萄種植的氣候和土壤而感到非常自豪。
香檳被認為是起泡酒的發源地,其種植者認為香檳是 “地方酒”,無法在世界其他地方複製。多年來,香檳的名字一直用於營銷目的,香檳的管理機構已經起訴了Perrier,Yves Saint Laurent和Miller啤酒等品牌。
所以你看,所有的香檳都屬於汽泡酒,但並不是所有汽泡酒都是香檳酒。

2. 它們由不同的葡萄釀製而成
生產香檳酒和汽泡酒葡萄所使用的葡萄由本地區各自的組成機構制定,以確保該地區葡萄酒的質量和真實性。
香檳生產中允許使用三種主要葡萄:霞多麗,黑比諾和皮諾莫尼耶。 Prosecco主要生產意大利威尼托地區的汽泡酒葡萄或格萊拉葡萄。

3. 它們以不同的方式製作
香檳酒使用時間和勞動密集型工藝製作,稱為MéthodeTraditionelle,也稱為MéthodeChampenoise。 這種方法要求葡萄酒的二次發酵(它是如何得到它的氣泡的)發生在同一個瓶子裡,它會從中提供。
汽泡酒的二次發酵發生在不銹鋼槽中,這個過程稱為Charmat方法。 直到二次發酵完成後才將葡萄酒裝瓶,使其成為更具成本效益的方法,從而為消費者帶來更實惠的價格。

4. 他們有不同的風味概況
汽泡酒的特點通常是青蘋果,柑橘和白色花朵的香氣,通常是清淡而細膩的,而且不是非常複雜。一些汽泡酒甚至與甜味,或者稱為“干性”有關。
另一方面,香檳增加了複雜性,部分原因是在二次發酵過程中花費了與死酵母細胞接觸的額外時間。 這些酵母細胞除了可以根據所用葡萄的比例而變化,還可以包括,但不限於:柑橘、蘋果、桃子、獼猴桃、蜂蜜、白色的花朵、櫻桃和覆盆子的味道。

 

5. 它們代表不同的價格點
除了將葡萄酒與食物搭配之外,還應該將葡萄酒與場合配對。
Prosecco是一款經濟實惠的汽泡酒,是一款不錯的日常選擇。這也是含酒精飲料如含羞草,貝利尼或石榴 – 迷迭香的最佳選擇。
香檳酒的價格更高,通常每瓶40美元以上,這使得它更像是一種特殊場合的葡萄酒,其複雜性最好在享用時慢慢體驗。

 

Prosecco vs. Champagne: What’s the difference?

Have you ever been reprimanded by a snooty sommelier or wine snob for referring to prosecco as Champagne, and you weren’t sure why? It was because while prosecco and Champagne both have bubbles, that’s just about all these sparkling wines have in common.
Here are five major differences between the two:
1. They’re from different places: Prosecco hails from the Veneto region in northeast Italy, and Champagne comes from the Champagne region in northeast France. With the extensive history of winemaking in the Old World, these regions take great pride in their terroir – the climate and soil where their grapes are grown. Champagne is considered the birthplace of sparkling wine, and its growers consider Champagne a “wine of place” that cannot be reproduced anywhere else in the world. Over the years the Champagne name has been used indiscriminately for marketing purposes, and Champagne’s governing body has sued brands such as Perrier, Yves Saint Laurent and Miller beer over its use. So you see, all Champagne is sparkling wine, but not all sparkling wine is Champagne.

2. They are made from different grapes: Grapes used in the production of both Champagne and prosecco are set by their region’s respective governing bodies to ensure the quality and authenticity of the region’s wines. There are three main grapes allowed in the production of Champagne: chardonnay, pinot noir and pinot meunier. Prosecco is produced primarily from the prosecco or glera grape, which is native to the Veneto region of Italy.

3. They’re made in different ways: Champagne is made using a time and labor intensive process known as the Méthode Traditionelle, also called Méthode Champenoise. This method requires that the wine’s secondary fermentation (how it gets its bubbles) take place in the same bottle it will be served from. Prosecco’s secondary fermentation takes place in a stainless steel tank, a process known as the Charmat method. The wine is not bottled until the secondary fermentation is complete, making it a more cost-effective method that results in a more affordable price for the consumer.

4. They have different flavor profiles. Prosecco is generally characterized by notes of green apples, citrus and white flowers that are usually light and delicate and not exceedingly complex. Some prosecco even borders on sweet, or what’s known as off-dry. Champagne, on the other hand, has added complexity, due in part to additional time spent in contact with dead yeast cells during secondary fermentation. These yeast cells give it a toasted brioche, yeasty bread dough or biscuit taste, in addition to fruit and other flavors, which can vary depending on the proportion of grapes used and can include – but is not limited to – citrus, apple, peach, honey, white flowers, cherry and raspberry.

5. They represent different price points: In addition to pairing wine with food, you should also pair the wine with the occasion. Prosecco is an affordable sparkling wine that is an excellent everyday option. It’s also a great choice for sparkling wine-based drinks like mimosas, bellinis or pomegranate-rosemary royales (click here for recipe). Champagne’s higher price point – entry level is usually upward of $40 a bottle – makes it more of a special occasion wine whose complexity is best enjoyed when savored on its own.

關於葡萄酒的一些常見誤解

在全球,葡萄酒是最受歡迎的酒精飲料之一。然而在台灣,葡萄酒並沒有真正受到廣泛接受,或是吸引到年輕和受過良好教育的成年人,以及那些有消費能力的人能夠享用美酒。
台灣一般人仍然喜歡啤酒,紹興(大米)酒或烈酒,另外葡萄酒搭配中國菜也不常見。但是現在漸漸有一些改變,但依然有些對葡萄酒的錯誤認知存在。
以下是關於葡萄酒常見誤解的討論。

1. 所有葡萄酒必須陳年; 葡萄酒的價值隨著年齡增長
這不一定是真的。只有一些精選的葡萄酒隨著年齡的增長而改善,但大多數葡萄酒在購買時已經是適飲期。
另外,要使葡萄酒適宜陳釀,葡萄酒儲存的條件必須是理想的。葡萄酒老化有三個主要標準 – 葡萄酒的類型(是否是一種能夠實際上隨著時間的推移而改進的葡萄酒),葡萄酒保持老化的環境(恆溫,恆濕,穩定的環境),並清楚了解何時葡萄酒會實際發展到頂峰,然後開始劣化。

2. 紅葡萄酒必須在室溫下儲存和飲用
通常,我們聽說紅葡萄酒需要在室溫下品飲,這裡要注意的是,這個室溫指的是歐洲的室溫,即16-18°C。但是,在台灣夏季的室溫可能超過35°C。
因此除了冬季,在台灣將紅葡萄酒存放在16-18°C的受控環境中非常重要。
其他要考慮的因素包括濕度(用軟木塞密封的瓶子),暴露在陽光下(要避免),以及振動和顛簸,都會對葡萄酒的口感產生負面影響。一般來說,如果你只需要存儲少量的葡萄酒幾週,最好將它儲存在冰箱中而不是室溫下。對於葡萄酒愛好者來說,葡萄酒櫃可能是一個不錯的選擇。

3. 每種葡萄酒都需要特定的酒杯
雖然每種葡萄酒都有理想的酒杯類型(形狀),但最好搭配使用,但這並不意味著如果您沒有特定葡萄酒的特定杯子,您就無法享用葡萄酒。
只要你有一個稍微寬一些的碗型(不是長型)的杯子,這是完全可以接受的你只填滿酒杯的底部1/5,然後平穩地旋轉酒(不要急劇旋轉),讓葡萄酒的酒香溢出到玻璃杯口中。聞著葡萄酒香氣是品嚐葡萄酒的樂趣的一部分,並為品嚐葡萄酒的口感做準備。 拿著酒杯上的酒莖而非直接握住杯子,否則你會把手上的熱量轉移到酒上而改變它的口感。當然,某方面來說,這也是一種加熱一杯太冷的葡萄酒方法。

4. 甜葡萄酒適合葡萄酒新手
根據您的口味和口感,如果您與特定食物配對,您可以享用甜酒或干白酒。有許多葡萄酒鑑賞家喜歡更甜的葡萄酒。更甜的葡萄酒不是不成熟的感覺,也不僅僅是女性飲用。它們的糖含量較高因此很甜。紅葡萄酒和白葡萄酒可以甜或干。 有些人喜歡更甜的葡萄酒,而不是單寧更多的葡萄酒,因為這種甜味提供了一個很好的平衡,並可以像甜酒一樣順口。再一次強調葡萄酒是個人偏好 – 沒有絕對的!

5. 把香料添加到酒中
當人們談到葡萄酒中的水果味或煙熏味時,它可能會混淆葡萄酒新手。然而葡萄酒的口味取決於特定的葡萄,每種葡萄酒的釀造方式(以及混釀的方式)及葡萄酒的儲藏方式。
葡萄酒發展自己的口味,並且經常類似某些水果或花的氣味,這取決於其性質。如果酒存放在木桶中,葡萄酒的味道會受到他們陳年的木桶影響。因此,正常的葡萄酒完全天然根本沒有添加任何調味劑。

6. 法國葡萄酒是最好的葡萄酒
法國幾個世紀以來一直生產葡萄酒,並將葡萄酒出口到世界各地,直至今日。法國的條件非常適合葡萄園,因此法國有大片的葡萄酒生產土地。因此許多人認為葡萄酒的適合口味應該是法國葡萄酒口感這並不令人驚訝。
然而除法國外,現在還有許多其他國家生產多種優質葡萄酒。對於葡萄酒中的探索可以持續一輩子,讓您探索嘗試各個國家的葡萄酒。然後您可以發現您對葡萄酒口感的喜好,並了解您喜歡哪些葡萄酒、來自哪些國家和葡萄酒種植區。
每個國家都有生產優質葡萄酒,在這種情況下,所謂的 “最佳” 具有很高的主觀性,並不一定受價格影響。

7. 用軟木塞瓶的葡萄酒才是最佳品質的
葡萄酒瓶以三種方式密封 – 傳統瓶塞、金屬螺旋蓋或塑料螺旋塞。
雖然許多人認為傳統的軟木塞葡萄酒是最好的,但是釀酒師常常使用螺旋蓋,因為保存軟木塞裝瓶的酒往往會帶來不方便。葡萄酒瓶必須傾斜或軟木塞可能會改變葡萄酒性質(極端是軟木污染)。
一般來說無論是螺旋蓋還是軟木塞頂部,都不應該改變酒裡的香氣和品質。現在有兩種思想主流:許多現代釀酒師更喜歡螺旋蓋,因為它們更加穩定(不會變質),並且更容易打開帶有螺旋頂部的瓶子(並且不是每個人都可能始終帶有軟木塞開瓶器);然而回歸傳統的人們認為帶有軟木塞的葡萄酒瓶提供了更高品質的體驗。也因此在這個問題上至今仍然不斷爭議。

Some Common Misperception about Wine

Globally, wine is among the most popular alcoholic beverages. However, wine has not really gained wide acceptance in Taiwan, is appealing to younger and more educated adults, and those with the spending power to be able to enjoy fine wine. The population at-large in Taiwan still prefers beer, shao hsing (rice) wine or hard spirits, to grape wine. Also, it not that common to pair grape wines with Chinese cuisine. However, there is some gradual changes occurring. The following is a discussion on some common misperceptions about wine.

1. All Wines must be Aged; Wines Improve with Age

This is not necessarily true. Only some select wines improve with age, but most wines are ready to drink, when purchased. In addition, for wines to age properly, the conditions, under which wine is stored, must be ideal. There are 3 major criteria to the ageing of wines – the type of wine it is (whether it is a wine that is capable of actually improving over time), the environment that the wine is kept under for ageing (constant temperature, humidity, stability of movement), and a clear understanding of when a wine will actually mature to its peak, and then begin to deteriorate.

2. Red Wine must be Stored and Consumed at Room Temperature

Often, we hear that red wine needs to be drunk at room temperature, the caveat here is that this room temperature refers to room temperature in Europe, which is 16-18°C. However, in Taiwan, room temperature can exceed 35°C in the summer months. Therefore, except for winter, in Taiwan, it is important to store your red wines in a controlled environment at about 16-18°C.
Other factors to consider include humidity (for bottles sealed with a cork), exposure to sunlight (to be avoided), and vibrations and jolting, can negatively affect the taste of wines. Generally, if you need to store wine for only a few weeks, it is better to store it in the refrigerator than at room temperature. For wine aficionados, a wine refrigerator may be a good investment.

3. Each Wine requires a Specific Wine Glass

While it is true that each type of wine has an ideal wine glass type (shape) it is best paired with, this does not mean that you cannot enjoy a wine, if you do not have the specific glasses for a particular wine. As long as you have a stem glass with a slightly wider bowl (not a flute), this is entirely acceptable. You only fill the bottom 1/5 of the wine glass, then steadily swirl the wine (never swirl sharply), allowing the bouquet of the wine to escape into the mouth of the glass. Smelling the wine its part of the enjoyment of tasting the wines, and prepares the palate for the taste of the wine. Hold the wine glass by the stem, otherwise you will transfer the heat from your hands to the wine, thus altering its taste. However, this is a way to warm a glass of wine that is too cold from being refrigerated.

4. Sweet Wines are for Wine Novices

Depending on your palate and your taste, and if you are pairing with specific foods, you can enjoy of either sweet or dry wine. There are many wine connoisseurs who prefer sweeter wines. Sweeter wines are not immature tastes nor only for women. They just have a higher sugar content and hence, are sweet. Red and white wines can be sweet or dry. Some prefer sweeter wines, as opposed to wines with more tannin, as the sugar provides a nice balance and goes well as a dessert wine. Again, “Beauty is in the Eye of the Beholder”, and wine is a personal preference – there are no absolutes!

5. Flavors are Added to Wine

It might confuse wine novices, when people speak of fruity or smoky flavors in wine. However, the taste of wine depends on the particular grapes, the way each wine is processed (and in some cases, blended), and how the wine is stored. Wines develop a taste of their own and often resemble the smells of certain fruits or flowers, depending on the properties. If wine is stored in wooden barrels, wine taste will be influenced by the barrels in which they are aged. Wines are completely natural and have no flavoring added to them at all.

6. French Wine is the Best Wine

France has been producing wines for centuries, and exporting their wines all over the world, up to the present day. French conditions are ideal for vineyards and thus, there are a large expanse of land dedicated to the production of wine in France. Therefore, it is not a surprise that many people feel that the “proper” taste of wine should be the way that French wines tastes. However, there now are many other countries, besides France, that produce many varieties of outstanding wine. The adventure in wine, which can last a lifetime, is to become adventurous, and try wines “outside of your comfort zone”. Then you can develop you wine palate, and understand what wines you prefer, from what countries and wines growing areas. Quality wines are being produced in every country. In this case, “Best” is highly subjective, and is not necessarily driven by price.

7. The Best Quality Wines come in Corked Bottles

Wine bottles are sealed in three ways – the traditional bottle cork, metal screw top, or plastic screw top. While many believe that the traditional corked wines are the best, screw tops are often used by winemakers, since keeping a bottled corked often gets a little inconvenient. The wine bottle has to be tilted or the cork may change in character (the extreme being cork taint). Generally, whether screw cap or cork top, there should be no change in the flavor and the quality of the wine inside. There are two schools of thought. Many modern winemakers prefer screw caps, as they are more stable (no deterioration), and it is easier to open a bottle with a screw top (and not everyone may have a cork screw with them all the time). However, falling back on tradition, the perception is that wine bottles with a cork seal, provides a higher quality experience. Again, the verdict is still out on this issue.

甚麼是葡萄酒中的丹寧酸?

在葡萄酒中,丹寧酸是使葡萄酒味道變乾(Dry)的質地元素。
單寧是植物,種子,樹皮,木材,葉子和果皮中發現的天然存在的多酚。 大約50%的植物葉片比重是單寧。 作為葡萄酒的一個特點單寧增加了苦味和澀味以及復雜性。 葡萄酒單寧最常見於紅葡萄酒,白葡萄酒的單寧從橡木桶陳釀而來。

單寧味道是什麼?
單寧味道乾燥和澀味,你可以感覺到它特別是在你的舌頭和你的嘴前部。 不加糖的紅茶溶解在水中幾乎是純鞣酸的一個很好的例子。
高丹寧食品
•茶葉
•核桃,杏仁和其他帶皮的堅果
•黑巧克力
•肉桂,丁香和其他香料
•石榴,葡萄和阿塞伊漿果
•木瓜
•紅豆

酒丹寧來自哪裡?
葡萄酒中的丹寧酸來自兩個可能的地方:葡萄酒和木頭。

什麼是葡萄單寧?
葡萄單寧來自酒葡萄的皮,種子和莖。 因此,紅葡萄酒的單寧往往比白葡萄酒高,因為葡萄皮與果汁的延長接觸使單寧酸有時間溶解在葡萄酒中。
某些葡萄酒的單寧比其他葡萄酒高。 意大利Barolo使用的Nebbiolo葡萄是高單寧葡萄品種。

什麼是木單寧?
木單寧通過接觸溶入酒中。 當葡萄酒存放在木桶中時,這種情況最為常見。 橡木桶是最受歡迎的選擇,因為它們添加到酒中的香味如香草醛。
單寧粉,橡木片和橡木板越來越受歡迎,因為它們更實惠。 很難說哪個更好,因為橡木桶可以用於葡萄酒釀造長達70年。

哪些葡萄酒單寧含量偏高或偏低?
我們挑選了幾個例子來幫助說明葡萄酒單寧,記住葡萄酒的釀造方式會深遠影響葡萄酒中單寧的含量。
一般來說,優質葡萄酒是有意創造出 “圓潤” 的單寧。

  1. 高丹寧葡萄酒:
    •內比奧羅
    •赤霞珠
    •普蘭尼洛
    •蒙特普齊亞諾
    •小維鐸
    •嬌小的西拉
  2. 低單寧葡萄酒:
    •巴貝拉
    •粉黛
    •黑比諾
    •普里米蒂沃
    •歌海娜
    •梅洛

葡萄酒單寧是好還是壞?
單寧+健康=好
實際上有一項關於葡萄酒和茶單寧和體內氧化作用的研究,在測試中,葡萄酒單寧抗氧化,而茶單寧沒有。換句話說,這對你來說可能超好。 你可以在這裡閱讀摘要
關於偏頭痛? 研究團隊仍然沒有研究出單寧和偏頭痛之間的關係。為了去除飲食中的單寧,你需要停止食用巧克力,堅果,蘋果汁,茶,石榴,當然還有葡萄酒。
葡萄酒的單寧是葡萄酒儲藏時間及方式值得注意的重要組成部分。
香氣化合物:在葡萄酒的微小細節(酚類,酯類,高級醇類,酸類等)中,您會發現葡萄酒口感和香氣的複雜性。每種葡萄品種都有不同程度的香氣化合物。這就是為什麼一些葡萄酒聞起來像漿果和其他聞起來像花一樣。
另一個影響葡萄酒香味的因素是老化。幾乎所有的紅葡萄酒都在橡木桶中陳釀,這不僅有助於橡木桶的香味化合物(如香草),而且還可以作為將葡萄酒暴露於氧氣的管道。氧化和老化產生一系列獨特的葡萄酒風味,包括堅果和乾果/花香。

What are Tannins in Wine?
In wine, tannin is a textural element that makes wine taste dry.
Tannin is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in plants, seeds, bark, wood, leaves, and fruit skins. About 50% of the dry weight of plant leaves are tannins. As a characteristic of wine, tannin adds both bitterness and astringency, as well as complexity. Wine tannins are most commonly found in red wine, although white wines have tannin from being aged in wooden barrels.

What Does Tannin Taste Like?
Tannin tastes dry and astringent and you can feel it specifically on the middle of your tongue and the front part of your mouth. Unsweetened black tea is a great example of nearly pure tannin dissolved in water.
High-Tannin Foods
• Tea Leaves
• Walnuts, Almonds, and Other Nuts with Skins
• Dark Chocolate
• Cinnamon, Clove and Other Spices
• Pomegranates, Grapes, and Açaí Berries
• Quince
• Red Beans

Where do Wine Tannins Come From?
Tannins in wine come from two possible places: wine grapes and wood.

Anatomy of a Wine Grape
What are Grape Tannins?
Grape tannin comes from the skins, seeds, and stems of a wine grape. For this reason, red wines tend to have higher tannins than white wines because the extended contact of the grapes skins with the juice give the tannins time to dissolve in the alcohol and water in the wine.

Some types of wine have higher tannins than others. The Nebbiolo grape used in Italian Barolo, is a high grape tannin wine.
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What are Wood Tannins?
Wood tannins dissolve into wine through contact. Most commonly this happens when wine is stored in wooden barrels. Oak barrels are the most popular choice because of the flavors they add to wine such as vanillin.

Tannin powders, oak chips and oak staves are growing in popularity because they are more affordable. It is hard to say which is better, since an oak barrel can be used in winemaking for up to 70 years.
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Which Wines are High vs Low in Tannin?
We picked out a few examples to help illustrate wine tannins. It’s helpful to remember that winemaking style greatly affects how much tannin is in a wine. In general, high production wines are deliberately created to have “rounder” feeling tannins.
High Tannin Wines
• Nebbiolo
• Cabernet Sauvignon
• Tempranillo
• Montepulciano
• Petit Verdot
• Petite Sirah
Low Tannin Wines
• Barbera
• Zinfandel
• Pinot Noir
• Primitivo
• Grenache
• Merlot

Are Wine Tannins Good or Bad?
Tannins + Health = Good There is actually a study on the effects of wine and tea tannin and oxidation in the body. In the tests, wine tannin resists oxidation whereas tea tannin did not. In other words, it may be super good for you. You can read the synopsis here.

What About Migraines?

The jury is still out on the connection between tannin and migraines. In order to remove tannins from your diet, you’ll need to stop consuming chocolate, nuts, apple juice, tea, pomegranate and, of course, wine.

葡萄酒的風味

葡萄酒的風味

從幾方面可以解釋酒的獨特風味:發酵過程中產生的酸度、甜味、酒精、單寧和芳香化合物。

酸度:葡萄酒作為飲料位於pH範圍從低至2.5(例如檸檬)至高達4.5(例如希臘酸奶)的酸度。葡萄酒一般口味偏酸。

甜度:根據葡萄酒的風格,葡萄酒的甜度範圍從沒有糖到非常甜,如楓糖漿。術語“dry”是指沒有甜味的酒。
有些葡萄酒太dry(乾),會刮掉舌頭上的水分,使嘴裡粘在你的牙齒上。另一方面,一些葡萄酒如此甜及濃郁,以至於像機油一樣黏稠在玻璃杯的兩側。

  • 為什麼一些不甜(Dry)葡萄酒比其他酒 “不甜”
    葡萄酒作家已經描述了不甜的概念多年,食品科學家實際上已經研究了為什麼一些葡萄酒比其他酒品嚐更“不甜”。兩組人都聲稱,香氣,單寧和酸度是葡萄酒決定“不甜”的關鍵因素。
  • 你可能比你的朋友對單寧更敏感
    最近的一項研究表明單寧有趣的是,根據唾液中天然存在的蛋白質的量,一些人對單寧的敏感性較高。唾液中含有更多蛋白質的人不會像唾液中蛋白質低的人那樣感覺到單寧的不甜效應。另一個有趣的事實是,與鹹味和高脂食物搭配時,單寧的味道會減少。我們將提出一篇關於單寧主題的後續文章。
  • 酸度使我們感到甜蜜感覺
    酸平衡甜度。一種酸度較高的葡萄酒比酸度較低的酒口感更 “不甜”。有些紐西蘭白蘇維濃葡萄酒生產商將在他們的葡萄酒中留下幾克殘糖,就是因為若不這樣做,酸度如此之高無法舒適飲用。
  • 我們的鼻子(香氣)引領我們的口味
    我們的嗅覺也極大地影響了我們對甜味的感知。你可以想像,一種聞味道更甜的葡萄酒也會嘗起來更甜。葡萄酒品種香味往往被稱為“芳香”,因為它們甜美的花香。幾個例子是冰酒、Gewurztraminer(格烏茲塔明娜)、和蜜絲嘉(麋香)。

酒精:酒的味道辛辣,口感塗層,溫暖你的喉嚨後面。葡萄酒的平均酒精含量約為10%ABV(酒精度)至15%ABV。當然,也有一些例外:Moscato d’Asti義式麋香白葡萄酒可以低至5.5%的酒精度,Port波特酒用中性白蘭地加強至20%的酒精度。

單寧:丹寧在紅葡萄酒中被發現,有助於紅葡萄酒的澀味。在你的舌頭上放一個濕的紅茶袋,這是單寧如何品嚐的一個很好的例子。

普通葡萄酒口感:葡萄酒飲用者是指“果味與泥土味”,“濃郁與清淡”。雖然品酒是非常主觀的,下面的圖表是在這些尺度上放置紅葡萄酒和白葡萄酒的通用參考。

 

The Taste of Wine

There are several facets that explain wine’s unique flavor: acidity, sweetness, alcohol, tannin, and aroma compounds produced in fermentation.

Acidity: Wine as a beverage lies on the acidic end of the pH scale ranging from as low as 2.5 (e.g., lemon) to as high as 4.5 (e.g., Greek yoghurt). Wine generally tastes tart.

Sweetness: Depending on the style of wine, sweetness in wine ranges from having no sugar at all to very sweet, like maple syrup. The term “dry” refers to a wine without sweetness.
Some wines are so dry that they scrape the moisture from your tongue and make the inside of your mouth stick to your teeth. On the other end of the spectrum, some wines are so sweet that they stick to the sides of your glass like motor oil.

  • Why Some Dry Wines Taste “Drier” Than Others
    Wine writers have described the concept of dryness for years, and food scientists have actually studied why some wines taste “more dry” than others. Both groups claim that aroma, tannin and acidity are key components to why a wine tastes ‘dry.’
  • You Might Be More Sensitive to Tannin than Your Friends
    What’s interesting about tannin is that a recent study demonstrated that some people have higher sensitivities to tannin, based on the amount of proteins naturally present in their saliva. People with more proteins in their saliva do not feel the drying effect of tannin as much as people with less. Another interesting fact is that the taste of tannin is reduced when paired with salty and fatty foods. We will present a subsequent article focused on the topic of tannins.
  • Acidity Tricks Our Perception of Sweetness
    Sour counterbalances sweet. A wine that has higher acidity will taste more “dry” than a wine with less acidity. Several producers of New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc will leave a couple grams of residual sugar in their wines, because the acidity is so high.
  • Our Noses Lead Our Sense of Taste
    Our sense of smell also greatly affects our perception of sweetness. As you can imagine, a wine that smells sweeter will also taste sweeter. Wine varieties are often referred to as “Aromatic”, because of their sweet floral aromas. A few examples of this are Riesling, Gewurztraminer, and Muscat.

Alcohol: The taste of alcohol is spicy, palate-coating and warms the back of your throat. Wine’s average range of alcohol is about 10% ABV (alcohol by volume) to 15% ABV. Of course, there are a few exceptions: Moscato d’Asti can be as low as 5.5% ABV, and Port is fortified with neutral brandy upping it to 20% ABV.

Tannin: Tannin is found in red wines and contributes to the astringent quality of red wine. Put a wet, black tea bag on your tongue for a great example of how tannin tastes.

General Wine Taste Notes: Wine drinkers refer to the terms “Fruity & Earthy”, and “Bold & Light”. While wine tasting is extremely subjective, the following chart is a good general reference for the placement of red and white wines on these scales.